Journal of Public Health and Nutrition

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Opinion Article - Journal of Public Health and Nutrition (2022) Volume 5, Issue 1

Preventive healthcare, or prophylaxis, consists of measures taken for disease prevention.

Hiroshi Kokubo*

Department of Social Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan

Corresponding Author:
Hiroshi Kokubo
Department of Social Medicine
Osaka University, Suita
Osaka 565-0871, Japan
E-mail:
[email protected]

Received: 03-Jan-2022, Manuscript No. AAJPHN-22-102; Editor assigned: 05-Jan-2022, Pre QC No. AAJPHN-22-102(PQ); Reviewed: 19-Jan-2022, QC No. AAJPHN-22-102; Revised: 22-Jan-2022, Manuscript No. AAJPHN-22-102(R); Published: 29-Jan-2022, DOI: 10.35841/aajphn- 5.1.102

Citation: Kokubo H. Preventive healthcare, or prophylaxis, consists of measures taken for disease prevention. J Pub Health Nutri. 2022; 5(1):102

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Introduction

Preventive healthcare, often known as preventive medicine or prophylaxis, tries to avoid disease by either preventing the development of a fitness problem or slowing and averting the onset of its sequelae. It refers to the actions performed to maintain health rather than the treatment of sickness.

Prophylaxis entails identifying and reducing illness risk factors, improving the current disease course, and detecting disease early through screening. Preventive screenings and services assist in assessing and lowering the risk of diseases and conditions such as hypertension, as well as treating it before it manifests in the body as a sign for a more chronic and lethal disease such as stroke [1].

Preventive healthcare

Disease prevention refers to actions taken to prevent the spread of disease, halt its progression, and mitigate its repercussions after it has occurred. Disease prevention has traditionally been divided into three levels: primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Preventive treatments try to break the chain of events that leads to one or more features of illness. They are aimed at different stages of disease development, with the goal of eradicating, eliminating, or limiting its impact, or, if none of these are possible, delaying disease and disability progression.

Disease prevention is defined as targeted, population-based, and individual-based treatments for primary and secondary (early detection) disease prevention with the goal of reducing disease burden and risk factors.

Actions aimed at preventing the onset of a disease are referred to as primary prevention (this may include actions to improve health through changing the impact of social and economic determinants on health; the provision of information on behavioural and medical health risks, alongside consultation and measures to decrease them at the personal and community level; nutritional and food supplementation; oral and dental hygiene education; and clinical preventive services such as immunisation and vaccination of children, adults and the elderly, as well as vaccination or post-exposure prophylaxis for people exposed to a communicable disease) [2].

Primary preventive actions can be carried out independently of capacity-building in other health-care services, but this is not the case with secondary prevention. If disorders cannot be swiftly remedied or treated through other components of the health care system, screening and early detection are of poor utility (and may even be harmful to the patient). Furthermore, a good primary health care system with a registered population makes it easier to organise and deliver accessible population-based screening programmes, which should be strongly supported.

Health promotion

Health promotion is the process of empowering people to take control of their health and its determinants through promoting health literacy and multispectral action to promote healthy behaviours [3]. This strategy involves actions for the general public as well as individuals at higher risk of poor health outcomes. Health promotion typically focuses on behavioural risk factors such cigarette use, obesity, food, and physical inactivity, as well as mental health, injury prevention, substance abuse control, alcohol control, HIV-related health behaviour, and sexual health.

Many of the aims of disease prevention and health promotion are similar, and there is a lot of overlap between the two activities. On a conceptual level, disease prevention services should be classified as those that are largely focused within the health care sector, while health promotion services should be classified as those that rely on interpectoral efforts and/or are concerned with the social determinants of health [4]. Tobacco, alcohol, physical activity, and diet policies and interventions (e.g., FCTC, DPAS, alcohol strategy and NCD best-buys)

Malnutrition, defined as a condition caused by eating a diet that is deficient in specific nutrients, excessive in particular nutrients (too high in intake), or in the improper proportions, should be addressed effectively through dietary and nutritional intervention.

Health services and cross-sectoral policy Interventions to help people with mental illness and substance misuse Health education and expanded access to sexual and reproductive health, as well as family planning services, are among the strategies to enhance sexual and reproductive health. Domestic violence prevention strategies include public awareness campaigns, victim care and protection, and collaboration with law enforcement and social agencies.

Support mechanisms for health promotion and preventive healthcare

Multisector partnerships for health promotion and disease prevention.

Healthy circumstances, lifestyles, behaviour, and settings are promoted through educational and social communication initiatives (see EPHO VII).

Reorientation of health-care services to develop diseaseprevention and health-promotion care models.

Risk communication is important.

Prophylaxis

Prophylaxis is a term that refers to the act of preventing something from happening.

Prophylactic treatment is derived from the Greek word "phylax," which means "to guard" or "to watch." It is used in health care to avoid illness [5].

This article explains how prophylaxis is used in health care and how it benefits patients.

Prophylactic health care

The term "prophylactic" is used in medicine to describe procedures and treatments that are used to prevent something from happening. Surgical procedures, dental cleanings, immunizations, and birth control are examples.

A prophylactic hepatitis vaccine, for example, protects the patient from contracting hepatitis. Tooth decay is prevented with a preventative dental cleaning. In health care, prophylaxis is a positive thing. It avoids a problem by addressing a potential problem before it becomes a problem. Illness prevention is frequently easier, faster, less expensive, and less painful than disease treatment. Condoms are sometimes referred to as prophylactic in casual conversation. This is due to the fact that they are used to prevent unplanned pregnancies.

References

  1. Musich S, Wang S, Hawkins K, et al. The Impact of Personalized Preventive Care on Health Care Quality, Utilization,and Expenditures. Popul Health Manag. 2016;19(6):389-97.
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  3. Salkind AR, Rao KC. Antibiotic Prophylaxis To Prevent Surgical Site Infections. Am Fam Physician2011;83(5):585-90.
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  5. Martins C, Godycki-Cwirko M, Heleno B, et al. Quaternary prevention: reviewing the concept. Eur J Gen Pract. 2018;24(1):106-11.
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  7. Chung S, Romanelli RJ, Stults CD, et al. Preventive visit among older adults with Medicare's introduction of Annual Wellness Visit: Closing gaps in underutilization. Prev Med. 2018;115:110-18.
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  9. Kottke TE, Solberg LI, Brekke ML, et al. Delivery rates for preventive services in 44 midwestern clinics. Mayo Clin Proc.1997;72(6):515-23.
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