Journal of Molecular Oncology Research

All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.
Reach Us +1 (202) 780-3397

Short Communication - Journal of Molecular Oncology Research (2023) Volume 7, Issue 6

Precision medicine in oncology: harnessing cancer genetics for personalized therapies

Muragan Sevanan *

Department of Radiation Oncology, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada.

*Corresponding Author:
Muragan Sevanan
Department of Radiation Oncology, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada

Received: 31-Oct-2023, Manuscript No. AAMOR-23-119336; Editor assigned: 01-Nov-2023, PreQC No. AAMOR-23-119336; Reviewed:16-Nov-2023, QC No. AAMOR-23-119336; Revised:21-Nov-2023, Manuscript No. AAMOR-23-119336 (R); Published:29-Nov-2023, DOI:10.35841/ aamor -7.6.203

Citation: Sevanan M. Precision medicine in oncology: harnessing cancer genetics for personalized therapies. J Mol Oncol Res. 2023; 7(6):203

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Molecular Oncology Research


Cancer remains one of the most formidable challenges in modern medicine, with its diverse manifestations and intricate molecular underpinnings. However, recent advancements in the field of cancer genetics have ushered in a new era of personalized oncology, offering hope for more effective and targeted treatments. This article delves into the exciting realm of precision medicine in oncology, focusing on how the understanding of cancer genetics is transforming the way we diagnose and treat this complex disease. By tailoring therapies to the unique genetic makeup of each patient's tumor, we are moving closer to the realization of individualized cancer treatments that promise greater efficacy and fewer side effects [1].

Cancer is not a single disease but a collective term for a multitude of conditions characterized by uncontrolled cell growth and proliferation. To appreciate the potential of precision medicine, it's essential to understand the genetic basis of cancer. Most cancers arise from genetic mutations that accumulate over time. These mutations can be inherited or acquired during a person's lifetime due to factors like exposure to carcinogens or errors in DNA replication. As a result, each cancer type and even individual tumors within a type may exhibit distinct genetic alterations. Advanced genomic sequencing techniques have allowed scientists to comprehensively catalog these mutations, revealing the genetic diversity that underlies cancer [2, 3]

Precision medicine in oncology starts with personalized diagnosis. Traditional cancer diagnoses rely on tissue histology and the location of the tumor, which may not provide a complete picture of the disease. Genetic testing, on the other hand, enables oncologists to pinpoint specific genetic alterations driving the cancer's growth. Techniques like next-generation sequencing (NGS) can analyze a tumor's DNA and RNA, identifying mutations, copy number variations, and gene expression profiles. This detailed genetic information not only aids in confirming the cancer type but also guides treatment decisions [4, 5 ].

Armed with precise genetic information about a patient's tumor, oncologists can now select treatments that target the specific molecular drivers of the cancer. Targeted therapies are designed to disrupt the pathways or molecules responsible for promoting cancer cell growth. These therapies are often more effective and less toxic than traditional chemotherapy, which can harm healthy cells as well. For example, in non-small cell lung cancer, tumors with specific mutations in the EGFR gene can be treated with drugs like erlotinib, which specifically block EGFR signaling. In breast cancer, HER2-positive tumors can be targeted with drugs such as trastuzumab. These targeted treatments offer the promise of better outcomes and improved quality of life for cancer patients [6, 7].

Another groundbreaking approach in precision oncology is harnessing the immune system to combat cancer. Immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as pembrolizumab and nivolumab, have shown remarkable success in treating various cancer types. The effectiveness of these therapies is often influenced by the tumor's genetic characteristics, such as the presence of specific mutations that make it more susceptible to immune attack. Additionally, personalized cancer vaccines are being developed to train a patient's immune system to recognize and target their unique cancer-related antigens. These innovative approaches underscore the importance of understanding the genetic profile of each patient's cancer to determine the most suitable immunotherapies [8, 9].

While precision medicine in oncology holds tremendous promise, it is not without challenges. Access to advanced genetic testing and targeted therapies can be limited, and the cost of these treatments remains a concern. Additionally, tumors can evolve over time, acquiring new mutations that may render previously effective treatments ineffective. To address these challenges, ongoing research is focused on improving the accessibility and affordability of precision medicine, as well as developing strategies to adapt treatments as tumors evolve. Collaborative efforts among researchers, clinicians, and policymakers are essential to ensure that the benefits of personalized cancer care reach as many patients as possible [10].


Precision medicine in oncology, driven by our growing understanding of cancer genetics, represents a significant leap forward in the battle against this complex disease. By tailoring diagnostic and treatment strategies to the unique genetic makeup of each patient's cancer, we are witnessing remarkable advances in therapy effectiveness and reduced side effects. As we continue to unravel the genetic mysteries of cancer, the potential for even more precise and effective treatments in the future is both tantalizing and inspiring. The journey toward personalized cancer care is an evolving one, marked by both challenges and breakthroughs, but it offers hope for improved outcomes and a brighter future for individuals facing this formidable adversary.


  1. Yadav D, Patil-Takbhate B, Khandagale A, et al. Next-Generation Sequencing Transforming Clinical Practice and Precision Medicine. Clinica Chimica Acta. 2023:117568.
  2.  Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  3. Mazzocchi A, Votanopoulos K, Skardal A. Personalizing cancer treatments empirically in the laboratory: patient-specific tumor organoids for optimizing precision medicine. Curr Stem Cell Rep. 2018;4:97-104.
  4. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  5. Sachdev JC, Sandoval AC, Jahanzeb M. Update on precision medicine in breast cancer. Precis Med cancer therapy. 2019:45-80.
  6. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  7. Batth IS, Mitra A, Manier SE, et al. Circulating tumor markers: harmonizing the yin and yang of CTCs and ctDNA for precision medicine. Ann Oncol. 2017 ;28(3):468-77.
  8. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  9. Du Y, Qi Y, Jin Z, Tian J. Noninvasive imaging in cancer immunotherapy: The way to precision medicine. Cancer letters. 2019 Dec 1;466:13-22.
  10. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  11. White K, Connor K, Clerkin J, et al. New hints towards a precision medicine strategy for IDH wild-type glioblastoma. Ann Oncol. 2020 ;31(12):1679-92.
  12. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  13. Lone SN, Nisar S, Masoodi T, et al. Liquid biopsy: A step closer to transform diagnosis, prognosis and future of cancer treatments. Mol Cancer. 2022 ;21(1):79.
  14. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  15. Naithani N, Atal AT, Tilak TV, et al. Precision medicine: Uses and challenges. Med J. Armed Forces India. 2021;77(3):258-65.
  16. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  17. Aredo JV, Padda SK. Management of KRAS-mutant non-small cell lung cancer in the era of precision medicine. Curr Treat Options Oncol. 2018;19:1-21.
  18. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  19. Hoelder S, Clarke PA, Workman P. Discovery of small molecule cancer drugs: successes, challenges and opportunities. Mol Oncol. 2012 ;6(2):155-76.
  20. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Get the App