Perspective - Journal of Public Health and Nutrition (2021) Volume 4, Issue 10
Nutritional abnormalities in the paediatric age groups in well-developed CountriesMegha Gandhi*
Department of biochemistry, Anna University, Tamil Nadu, India
- *Corresponding Author:
- Megha Gandhi
Department of biochemistry
Anna University, Tamil Nadu, India
E-mail: [email protected]
Accepted date: October 21, 2021
Citation: Megha Gandhi. Nutritional abnormalities in the paediatric age groups in well-developed countries. J Pub Health Nutri. 2021; 4(10):370-371.
Despite recent improvements in world income-related poverty, malnutrition remains common. Iron, vitamin A, folic acid, and zinc deficits are common in children worldwide, especially in low-income countries.
Micronutrient deficiency has an impact on health, function, and physical and cognitive development throughout the life cycle. Nutritional deficits have been linked to a variety of diseases and morbid states. These include birth deformities, delays in physical and cognitive development, a higher risk of infectious infections, and an increased chance of poor health in adulthood. Nutritional inadequacies are responsible for over two-thirds of all fatalities in young children around the world .
The identification of important nutrients and their roles in illness prevention has aided in the reduction of nutritional deficiency diseases like as goitre, rickets, and pellagra in many countries, including the United States, Canada, Europe, and third-world countries. In Israel, a country of huge immigration where a large portion of the population lives in poverty, there is a relatively high rate of unemployment as well as population ageing. These factors lead to the relatively high prevalence of essential nutrient deficiencies, such as iron deficiency anaemia, goitre, and vitamin D insufficiency, in diverse sectors of the Israeli population .
Low vitamin B12 levels, low folic acid levels, and hence high homocysteine levels, as well as an elevated risk of coronary heart disease, have been reported. For many years, Israel's regulatory authorities have been intending to implement food fortification. Few of the nutrients are required to be used, and many are used voluntarily by local businesses.
When the main dietary carbohydrates, sugars and starches, are not absorbed from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, it is called carbohydrate malabsorption. Monosaccharides (glucose, galactose, and fructose) and disaccharides (glucose, galactose, and fructose) are examples of sugars (lactose, sucrose, maltose). Polysaccharides, which are made up of glucose sugars bonded together, are included in starches.
The presence of a pH less than 5.5 in a child's faeces indicates carbohydrate malabsorption, which is produced by carbohydrate fermentation from malabsorption. It can also be discovered by looking for glucose or other carbohydrates like sucrose and starches in the stool. Watery diarrhoea, dehydration, and acidosis (when your child's blood becomes acidic) can all result from this form of malabsorption .
Disorders of amino acid absorption
Proteins are made up of amino acids, which are the building components. Active and specialised transporters absorb free amino acids into the stomach lining. When these transporters are defective, it causes problems with amino acid absorption.
Iron deficiency anemia
Iron deficiency is the most prevalent cause of anaemia, or a lack of red blood cells.
The synthesis of haemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying molecule in red blood cells, requires iron. When iron levels are low, haemoglobin cannot be synthesised, resulting in a reduction in the number of red blood cells. In the bone marrow, spleen, and liver, a lower amount of iron is retained as ferritin and hemosiderin .
Children who have been diagnosed with malnutrition are either underfed or overfed. An imbalance between nutrient requirements and intake causes undernutrition. Children who are malnourished may be deficient in energy, protein, or micronutrients, which can have a severe impact on their growth, development, and other outcomes. Excessive nutrient consumption leads to over nutrition. Overeating can result in a variety of health issues, including obesity.
Malnutrition can be caused by a variety of reasons, including insufficient or excessive food consumption, infections, chronic illnesses, psychosocial deprivation, environmental factors, and even genetics. Malnutrition, even in mild forms, can lead to serious illness and even death.
The loss of serum proteins from the digestive tract is referred to as protein-losing enteropathy. In many cases, aberrant lymphatic flow is the cause of protein loss. The lymphatic system is important for immunological function as well as the supply of essential nutrients to the body. The lymphatic system takes surplus lymph fluid — a watery fluid that contains protein, electrolytes, cells, and other chemicals — from the body's organs and returns it to the blood stream, somewhat like a sponge .
- Lerner A, Shapira Y, Agmon-Levin N, et al. The clinical significance of 25OH-Vitamin D status in celiac disease. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. (2012)42:322-30.
- Oren Y, Shapira Y, Agmon-Levin N, et al. Vitamin D insufficiency in a sunny environment: a demographic and seasonal analysis. Isr Med Assoc J. (2010)12:751-56.
- Kark JD, Sinnreich R, Rosenberg IH, et al. Plasma homocysteine and parental myocardial infarction in young adults in Jerusalem. Circulation. (2002)105:2725-29.
- Anderson JL, Jensen KR, Carlquist JF, et al. Effect of folic acid fortification of food on homocysteine-related mortality. Am J Medm. (2004)116:158-64.
- Lutter CK. Iron deficiency in young children in low-income countries and new approaches for its prevention. J Nutr. (2008)138:2523-28.