Journal of Systems Biology & Proteome Research

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Editorial - Journal of Systems Biology & Proteome Research (2023) Volume 4, Issue 1

Marine medaka's two-dimensional gel electrophoresis profile

Mario Niklas *

Department of Science, School of Science and Technology, Hong Kong Metropolitan University, Hong Kong

*Corresponding Author:
Mario Niklas
Department of Science, School of Science and Technology, Hong Kong Metropolitan University, Hong Kong
E-mail: niklasmario@edu.hg

Received: 05-Jan -2023, Manuscript No. AASBPR-23-87635; Editor assigned: 06-Jan-2023, PreQC No. AASBPR-23-87635(PQ); Reviewed:20-Jan-2023, QC No. AASBPR-23-87635; Revised:23-Jan-2023, Manuscript No. AASBPR-23-87635(R); Published:28-Jan-2023, DOI:10.35841/aasbpr-4.1.135

Citation: Niklas. M. Marine medaka's two-dimensional gel electrophoresis profile. J Syst Bio Proteome Res. 2023;4(1):135

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This dinoflagellate is now a severe threat to fish, shellfish, and zooplankton populations, and its blooms are typically accompanied by widespread fish mortality. Despite the identification of various toxins in K. mikimotoi, including gymnocins and gymnodimines, the processes underlying this species' ichthyotoxicity are still unknown, and molecular research on this subject has never been reported. Through comp arative proteomic analysis, the current study examines K. mikimotoi's fish-eating mechanisms. A model fish organism called marine medaka was exposed to K. mikimotoi over the course of three time periods. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to separate the fish's extracted proteins, and proteins with differential expression were found in comparison to an untreated control. The time-course of exposure led to changes in fish proteomes that were analyzed. 35 difference protein spots encompassing 19 distinct proteins were found in total, and the majority of these spots began to exhibit notable changes in expression levels at the earliest stage of intoxication. Some of the 19 proteins that were shown to exist have a close connection to energy metabolism, muscular contraction, and oxidative stress responses. We suggest that the symptoms that appeared during the ichthyotoxicity test, such as gasping for air, losing balance, and twitching of the body, may have been caused by oxidative stressmediated muscle injury. Our findings establish the groundwork for in-depth investigations into the processes behind the ichthyotoxicity of K. mikimotoi


Red tides, also known as harmful algal blooms (HABs), are caused by the fast growth of microalgae that are toxic or dangerous to fish, shellfish, marine mammals, and seabirds. Their toxins can even make people sick if they consume contaminated water or food. Aquaculture, marine recreation, and marine biodiversity are just a few of the negative effects that HABs exhibit. Some HAB species release toxins that harm fish gills or mucus, both of which have an impact on breathing because issues with mucus can result in clogged gills. Poisoned fish may eventually suffocate to death. When an excessive amount of oxygen is eaten by algae and bacteria that are digesting the blooms, fish may also be indirectly killed by algae overgrowth owing to oxygen shortage. In rare cases, HABs do not immediately kill marine species, so people who eat fish or shellfish contaminated with HAB poisons may become unwell [1].

In many different oceans and coastal waters of many different nations, blooms of the species Karenia mikimotoi have killed fish and marine invertebrates, albeit not all of them were associated with widespread mortality. Japan, South Korea, Australia, Alaska, the Gulf of Mexico, the Atlantic coast of the United States, and European nations like Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom have all reported cases over the previous years. K. mikimotoi was initially discovered in China in the coastal waters near Xiamen. K. mikimotoi blooms have regularly resulted in significant economic losses for China, particularly in the Changjiang River estuary, the East China Sea, and coastal regions close to Fujian Province. The vast biomass of the blooms, which create significant amounts of mucilage, hypoxic zones in specific areas of water, and high quantities of toxins, shown in a prior study that algal toxicity may be significantly expressed [2] [3].

Due to its excellent resolving power, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) is one of the most important methods in traditional proteomics for separating proteins. Proteins can then be analysed to determine their abundances or to find out if they are present. Proteomic analysis could use gel-based or gel-free techniques. When compared to gel-free methods, 2-DE is less expensive, simpler to use, and gives a brief summary of the protein profile of a sample by looking for post-translational changes (PTMs) [4].

Additionally, the positions of protein spots on the gel image can be used to directly determine the isoelectric points (pIs) and molecular weights (MWs) of proteins. Due to these benefits, 2-DE is still frequently employed as the main instrument for extensive research of proteins in cells, tissues, and organisms. Protein expression levels can be compared qualitatively and quantitatively after the proteomes of samples under various settings or phases are acquired. Several fish species from the genus Oryzias, also referred to as medaka, are employed in numerous research, particularly those on toxicity and stress tolerance. The marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) was selected as the study fish because it grows best in seawater, which is similar to K. mikimotoi, and because it is extremely tolerant of a wide range of salinities and temperatures. Any alteration in the expression of any proteins across the complete marine medaka proteome after exposure to K. mikimotoi visualized through comparative 2-DE [5,].


Some potential experiments are recommended for further research in order to expand on the findings of this study. To identify the bodily regions most impacted by the dinoflagellate, we may dissect medaka following exposure to K. mikimotoi and analyse the proteome alterations in various organs for more thorough investigations. However, molecular studies on K. mikimotoi after it has been exposed to fish may reveal any "contact-induced" toxicity that needs living algal cells. We may establish up additional groups by subjecting medaka to various K. mikimotoi concentrations from acute to chronic toxicity in order to conduct more thorough studies. Results from algal cultures isolated from blooms that occurred in various geographical regions might also be examined because different strains of K. mikimotoi may differ significantly in toxicity and intoxication processes. The links between their variants could also be better understood by using phylogenetic analysis.


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