Short Communication - Microbiology: Current Research (2023) Volume 7, Issue 3
Insights into symbiont evolutionary routes from genomic sequencing
Department of Biology, Federal University Lokoja, Lokoja, Nigeria
- *Corresponding Author:
- Gideon Andrey
Department of Biology,
Federal University Lokoja
Received:17-May-2023, Manuscript No. AAMCR-23-99384;Editor assigned: 19-May-2023, PreQC No. AAMCR-23-99384(PQ);Reviewed:03-Jun-2023, QC No. AAMCR-23-99384;Revised:07-Jun-2023, Manuscript No. AAMCR-23-99384(R); Published:14-Jun-2023, DOI: 10.35841/ aamcr-7.3.148
Citation:Gideon Andrey. Insights into symbiont evolutionary routes from genomic sequencing. J Micro Curr Res.2023;7(3):148
Symbiosis is a phenomenon where two or more different species interact with each other to derive mutual benefits. In most cases, one of the species is larger, and it provides shelter or nutrients to the other smaller species. The smaller species, in return, provides a service such as protection from predators, nutrient uptake, or metabolism. Symbiosis has been observed in many different taxa, including plants, animals, and microorganisms. One of the critical aspects of understanding symbiosis is to study the evolutionary routes that led to the formation of the relationship. Genomic sequencing has played a critical role in providing insights into the evolutionary routes of symbionts. .
Genomic sequencing has allowed researchers to study the genomes of both the host and symbiont species in a symbiotic relationship. By comparing the genomes, researchers can identify genes and pathways that have evolved in response to the symbiosis. These genomic comparisons have revealed that symbiosis has led to the acquisition, loss, and modification of genes and pathways in both the host and symbiont species. One of the most significant insights provided by genomic sequencing is the horizontal transfer of genes between different species. Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is the transfer of genetic material between different species that is not inherited vertically from parents. HGT has been observed in many different types of organisms, including bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. In symbiotic relationships, HGT has played a critical role in the evolution of the relationship. For example, genomic sequencing has revealed that many of the genes involved in nitrogen fixation in rhizobia, a group of bacteria that form symbiotic relationships with legumes, have been acquired through HGT from other bacterial species. These genes have then been modified and integrated into the rhizobial genome, allowing them to perform the critical function of fixing atmospheric nitrogen into a form that can be used by the plant. .
Another insight provided by genomic sequencing is the loss of genes and pathways in both the host and symbiont species. In many cases, symbiotic relationships have led to the loss of genes or pathways that are no longer needed due to the presence of the symbiont. For example, genomic sequencing has revealed that many species of aphids, small insects that feed on the sap of plants, have lost the ability to produce essential amino acids because their symbiotic bacteria provide them with these amino acids. .
The modification of genes and pathways in both the host and symbiont species is another insight provided by genomic sequencing. Symbiotic relationships have led to the evolution of new functions and pathways in both species. For example, genomic sequencing has revealed that the symbiotic bacteria Buchnera, which lives inside the aphid, has evolved the ability to produce essential amino acids that are not produced by the aphid's cells. This modification has allowed the aphid to feed on a nutritionally poor diet of plant sap. Genomic sequencing has also provided insights into the co-evolution of host and symbiont species. Co-evolution occurs when two or more species evolve together in response to each other's presence. Genomic sequencing has revealed that symbiotic relationships have led to the co-evolution of host and symbiont species, with each species adapting to the presence of the other. .
For example, genomic sequencing has revealed that the evolution of the symbiotic relationship between rhizobia and legumes has led to the evolution of specific signal molecules that allow the legume to recognize the presence of the rhizobia. These signal molecules, called Nod factors, are produced by the rhizobia and are recognized by the legume root cells, triggering the formation of nodules that house the rhizobia .
Genomic sequencing has provided valuable insights into the evolutionary routes of symbionts. By comparing the genomes of host and symbiont species in a symbiotic relationship, researchers have been able to identify the genes and pathways that have evolved in response to the symbiosis. This has allowed researchers to gain a better understanding of how symbiotic relationships have evolved and the factors that have contributed to their evolution. As genomic sequencing technologies continue to improve, we can expect to gain even more insights into the evolutionary routes of symbionts and the complex relationships that exist between different species in nature.
- Bright M, Bulgheresi SA complex journey: Transmission of microbial symbionts. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2010;8(3):218-30.
- Moran NA, Mc Cutcheon JP, Nakabachi AGenomics and evolution of heritable bacterial symbionts. Annu Rev Genet. 2008; 42:165-90.
- Shigenobu S, Wilson AC. Genomic revelations of a mutualism: The pea aphid and its obligate bacterial symbiont Cell Mol Life Sci. 2011;68:1297-309.
- Kirchberger PC, Schmidt ML, Ochman H. The ingenuity of bacterial genomes. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2020; 74:815-34.
- Sudakaran S, Kost C, Kaltenpoth M Symbiont acquisition and replacement as a source of ecological innovation. . Trends Microbiol. 2017;25(5):375-90.