Journal of Molecular Oncology Research

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Perspective - Journal of Molecular Oncology Research (2023) Volume 7, Issue 6

Inhibiting the growth of extracranial germ cell tumours.

Cheng Honecker*

Department of Medical Oncology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada

Corresponding Author:
Cheng Honecker
Department of Medical Oncology,
University of British Columbia,

Received: 03-May-2023, Manuscript No. AAMOR-23-97660; Editor assigned: 05-May-2023, AAMOR-23-97660 (PQ); Reviewed: 19-May-2023, QC No. AAMOR-23-97660; Revised: 03-Jul-2023, Manuscript No. AAMOR-23-97660 (R); Published: 10-Jul-2023, DOI:10.35841/aamor.7.6.201

Citation: Honecker C. Inhibiting the growth of extracranial germ cell tumours. J Mol Oncol Res. 2023;7(6):1-2.

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Children, adolescents, and babies who develop Germ Cell Tumours (GCTs) have unique difficulties. Nearly 15% of cancers in adolescents and 3% of malignancies in children and young adults are GCTs. According to epidemiological and molecular data, GCTs in young children presumably belong to a different biologic category than GCTs in older adolescents and adults. Despite this distinction, paediatric GCTs are typically managed using multi-agent regimens based on cisplatin, much like those applied to adults.


Cell tumour, Germ cell tumours, Cancers, Adolescents, Epidemiological


Malignant tumours of the germline that affect patients ages 0 to 18 are referred to as paediatric germ cell tumours [1]. These malignancies can develop in the ovary, sacrococcyx, or extragonadal locations such the mediastinum and sacrococcyx. GCTs, or germ cell tumours, can develop in the brains of kids and teenagers. Despite having a histological resemblance to extracranial GCTs, intracranial GCTs (iGCTs) are not further discussed here because it is unclear whether tumours in the various sites develop through the same or different mechanisms, and the treatments employed differ somewhat [2].

Despite significant overlaps in biology and clinical presentation between paediatric and adult Testicular (T) GCTs, there are also significant distinctions that should be kept in mind. First, epidemiological statistics show two different peaks in GCT incidence, the first occurring in young children (about 0-4 years old) and the second starting throughout puberty. Germ cell tumours in very young children have significant changes (discussed below), suggesting that they may represent a different illness even if the histologic appearance and molecular biology of GCTs originating in teenagers are comparable to those in adult TGCTs [3].

It is unknown whether these findings are equivalent for kids with extragonadal or gonadal GCT. The Malignant Germ cell tumour International Collaborative (MaGIC) consortium was recently established by researchers from the children's oncology group (USA) and the children's cancer and leukaemia group (UK) in order to improve outcomes for patients with Germ Cell Tumours (GCTs) by generating new insights into aetiology, prognosis, toxicity reduction, and ideal treatment. A revised evidence based risk classification for paediatric and adolescent GCTs has been created by MaGIC investigators using data from 25 years of clinical trials conducted in the US and the UK [4].


GCTs are thought to develop from developing germ cells rather than mature gonadal cells, such as spermatogonial stem cells, according to a number of lines of evidence. An intriguing sequence of observations that connected etiological occurrences to traits of the evolving germline led to the discovery of this. Seminomatous GCTs and non-seminomatous GCTs are the two main forms of GCTs based on histology. Undifferentiated germ cells that can histologically resemble early spermatogonia, oogonia, or even germ cells from developing lineages make up seminomatous GCTs, which are tumours [5].

The Primordial Germ Cell (PGC), which specifies the germline, differs from other body cells in that it must preserve the pluripotent potential required for gamete production. Due to this requirement, a special developmental cycle has been created that includes stages of sensitivity to inappropriate differentiation. The PGC must be differentiated sex specifically from the remainder of the developing embryo through genetic and epigenetic processes before migrating across the body to the location of the gonad. These phases each reflect a developmental trait as well as a hint about the phenotypes and traits of germ cell tumours.


The important function for abnormal developmental pathways in the aetiology of these cancers is suggested by the fact that GCTs are the only non-somatic tumour lineage in the body and display a distinctive mix of diverse histology, wide variety of locations of presentation, and apparent lack of typical oncogenic drivers. Through the use of either exogenous signalling ligands or small molecules that either activate or inhibit the relevant pathways, differentiation based therapies that one day may either supplement or replace traditional cytotoxic therapies could be developed.


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