Mini Review - Journal of Food Nutrition and Health (2023) Volume 6, Issue 4
Inflammation in neurodegenerative disorders: implications for disease progression
Department of Pharmacology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina
- Corresponding Author:
- Guanghong Wei
Department of Pharmacology
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
Received: 02-Aug-2023, Manuscript No. AAJFNH-23-107586; Editor assigned: 05-Aug-2023, Pre QC No. AAJFNH-23-107586(PQ); Reviewed: 19-Aug-2023, QC No. AAJFNH-23-107586; Revised: 24-Aug-2023, Manuscript No. AAJFNH-23-107586(R), Published: 31-Aug-2023,DOI:10.35841/aajfnh-6.4.163
Citation: Wei G. Inflammation in neurodegenerative disorders: implications for disease progression. J Food Nutr Health. 2023; 6(4):163
Computational protein design, De novo protein design, Energy landscape, Energy optimization, Massively parallel protein stability measurements.
Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the accumulation of beta-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, leading to the progressive loss of memory, cognitive decline, and changes in behaviour. Despite decades of research, no cure for Alzheimer's disease has been found, highlighting the complex nature of this disorder. Parkinson's disease is another prominent neurodegenerative disorder, affecting approximately 10 million people globally. It is characterized by the degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons in a specific region of the brain called the substantial nigra .
This leads to motor symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, and impaired balance and coordination. Parkinson's disease also presents non-motor symptoms, including cognitive impairment, depression, and sleep disturbances. While there are treatments available to manage the symptoms, there is no cure for Parkinson's disease at present. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), often referred to as Lou Gehrig's disease, is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. It leads to the degeneration of motor neurons, which are responsible for controlling voluntary muscle movement. As the disease progresses, individuals with ALS may experience muscle weakness, difficulty speaking, swallowing, and breathing. Unfortunately, the majority of people with ALS survive only two to five years from the onset of symptoms. Like other neurodegenerative disorders, there is no cure for ALS, and current treatments focus on managing symptoms and improving quality of life. Neurodegenerative disorders pose unique challenges to researchers due to their multifactorial nature. While the exact causes of these disorders remain elusive, there are several factors that are believed to contribute to their development [2,3].
These factors include genetic mutations, environmental factors, oxidative stress, inflammation, and protein misfolding. The interplay between these factors and their impact on neuronal health is an area of intense investigation. Advancements in technology and research tools have greatly enhanced our understanding of neurodegenerative disorders. Techniques such as brain imaging, genetic sequencing, and biomarker analysis have provided valuable insights into disease mechanisms and progression. These tools enable researchers to identify specific molecular and cellular changes associated with neurodegeneration, paving the way for the development of targeted therapies .
One promising area of research involves the role of protein aggregation in neurodegenerative disorders. In diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, proteins such as beta-amyloid and alpha-synuclein, respectively, accumulate and form toxic aggregates in the brain. Understanding the mechanisms underlying protein misfolding and aggregation could lead to the development of novel therapeutics aimed at preventing or disrupting these processes. Another exciting avenue of research focuses on neuroplasticity, the brain's ability to reorganize and form new connections. Scientists are exploring various approaches to enhance neuroplasticity as a potential strategy to slow down or even reverse neurodegeneration. This includes pharmacological interventions, cognitive training, physical exercise, and non-invasive brain stimulation techniques. Harnessing the brain's inherent plasticity offers hope for developing interventions that can mitigate the effects of neurodegenerative disorders .
Clinicians and pharmaceutical companies is vital in advancing our understanding of neurodegenerative disorders. Efforts are underway to develop large-scale collaborative initiatives that promote data sharing, resource sharing, and interdisciplinary research. These initiatives aim to accelerate the discovery of novel therapeutic targets and improve clinical trial designs, ultimately bringing us closer to effective treatments and, ultimately, a cure for neurodegenerative disorders.
Neurodegenerative disorders represent a significant challenge for both individuals affected by the conditions and the scientific community. Despite the complexity of these disorders, ongoing research is shedding light on their underlying mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets. Advances in technology, coupled with collaborative efforts, hold great promise for the future. By unravelling the mysteries of the brain, we can hope to develop effective interventions that will improve the lives of millions of people worldwide.
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