Mini Review - Journal of Cholesterol and Heart Disease (2023) Volume 7, Issue 4
Impact of Preoperative Cardiac Rehabilitation on Postoperative Recovery in Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Patients
Yuhuan Chen *
Department of Cardiology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China
- *Corresponding Author:
- Yuhuan Chen
Department of Cardiology
Received: 01-Aug-2023, Manuscript No. AACHD-23-112266; Editor assigned: 03-Aug-2023, PreQC No. AACHD-23-112266 (PQ); Reviewed: 17-Aug-2023, QC No. AACHD -23-112266; Revised: 21-Aug-2023, Manuscript No. AACHD-23-112266 (R); Published: 28-Aug-2023, DOI: 10.35841/aachd-7.4.158
Citation: Chen Y. From plaque formation to cardiovascular consequences: Demystifying atherosclerosis. J Cholest Heart Dis 2023;7(4):158
Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) is a common surgical procedure for the treatment of coronary artery disease. Despite advancements in surgical techniques, postoperative recovery remains a significant concern. Preoperative cardiac rehabilitation (CR) has gained attention as a potential intervention to optimize patients' physical and psychological well-being before CABG. This article aims to explore the impact of preoperative CR on postoperative recovery in CABG patients by reviewing relevant literature. The findings highlight the potential benefits of preoperative CR in improving outcomes, reducing complications, enhancing functional capacity, and promoting overall well-being among CABG patients.
Atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory condition characterized by the build-up of plaque in the arteries, is a leading cause of cardiovascular diseases worldwide. This progressive disease gradually narrows and stiffens the arteries, restricting blood flow and posing serious health risks. Understanding the process of plaque formation and its consequences on cardiovascular health is essential in order to develop effective preventive strategies and treatment options. In this article, we demystify atherosclerosis by exploring its pathogenesis, risk factors, diagnostic methods, and the associated cardiovascular consequences .
Atherosclerosis begins with an initial injury or damage to the inner lining of the artery, known as the endothelium. Various risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, smoking, diabetes, and inflammation contribute to this damage. The injured endothelium triggers an inflammatory response, leading to the accumulation of immune cells, lipids, and cellular debris within the arterial wall. Over time, these substances form fatty deposits called plaques. Several risk factors contribute to the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Some of the key modifiable risk factors include smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia (abnormal lipid levels), diabetes, obesity, physical inactivity, and an unhealthy diet. Non-modifiable risk factors include age, gender, family history, and genetic predisposition. It is important to address these risk factors to prevent or slow down the progression of atherosclerosis .
Various diagnostic methods are employed to detect and assess the presence and severity of atherosclerosis. These include medical history evaluation, physical examinations, blood tests to assess lipid levels and inflammation markers, electrocardiograms (ECGs) to evaluate heart function, stress tests, echocardiograms, and imaging techniques such as coronary angiography, computed tomography (CT) scans, and ultrasound-based techniques like carotid intima-media thickness measurement. Consequences of Atherosclerosis on Cardiovascular Health:The consequences of atherosclerosis can be severe and life-threatening. As the plaque accumulates and progresses, it narrows the arteries, reducing blood flow to vital organs such as the heart, brain, and limbs. This can lead to various cardiovascular complications, including coronary artery disease (CAD), angina (chest pain), myocardial infarction (heart attack), stroke, peripheral artery disease (PAD), and critical limb ischemia (CLI). These conditions can significantly impact an individual's quality of life and increase the risk of disability and mortality .
Preventing and managing atherosclerosis involves a comprehensive approach that addresses both modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Lifestyle modifications play a crucial role, including adopting a heart-healthy diet, engaging in regular physical activity, quitting smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, and managing underlying medical conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Medications such as statins, antiplatelet drugs, and blood pressure-lowering medications may be prescribed to manage risk factors and prevent complications. In some cases, interventional procedures such as angioplasty, stenting, or bypass surgery may be required to restore blood flow and alleviate symptoms .
Atherosclerosis is a complex and progressive disease that underlies many cardiovascular conditions. By understanding its pathogenesis, risk factors, diagnostic methods, and consequences, we can adopt preventive strategies and implement early interventions to reduce the burden of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Public health initiatives promoting healthy lifestyles, regular screenings, and effective management of risk factors are crucial in combating this silent but significant threat to global health .
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