Journal of Brain and Neurology

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Opinion Article - Journal of Brain and Neurology (2022) Volume 5, Issue 5

Impact of neurological disorders in children and its mechanisms

Pierangelo Veggiotti*

Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, University of Milano, Italy

*Corresponding Author:
Pierangelo Veggiotti
Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences
University of Milano, Italy
E-mail: [email protected]

Received: 26-Aug-2022, Manuscript No. AAJBN-22-77620; Editor assigned: 30-Aug-2022, PreQC No. AAJBN-22-77620(PQ); Reviewed: 13-Sep-2022, QC No. AAJBN-22-77620; Revised: 16-Sep-2022, Manuscript No.AAJBN-22-77620(R); Published: 23-Sep-2022, DOI:10.35841/aajbn-5.5.122

Citation: Veggiotti P. Impact of neurological disorders in children and its mechanisms. J Brain Neurol. 2022;5(5):122

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Abstract

     

Keywords

Endotheliitis, Neuroepidemiology, Neuropathology.

Introduction

The interface between neurology and psychiatry is a variant of all four entities have unique characteristics and can be diagnosed with the support of clinical neurophysiological studies and other biomarkers. The pathophysiology of functional neuropathy includes over activity of the limbic system development of internal symptom models as part of predictive coding frameworks, and dysfunction of brain networks that give movement a sense of spontaneity. Evidence supports individualized multidisciplinary treatment including physical and psychotherapeutic approaches [1].

A comprehensive review of reported neuropathies during the current COVID-19 pandemic has shown that infection with SARS-CoV-2 affects the Central Nervous System (CNS), Peripheral Nervous System (PNS), and muscles. Central nervous system symptoms include anosmia, hyposmia, hypogustia, and dysgeusia are common early symptoms of coronavirus infection. Respiratory failure, a deadly symptom of COVID-19, which is responsible for deaths world-wide is likely of neurogenic origin with the virus invading cranial nerves and spreading to the rhinoceros and brainstem. can spread to the respiratory center of the Cerebrovascular disease, particularly ischemic large-vessel stroke and rarely cerebral venous thrombosis, intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage are usually thrombotic events caused by viral binding to receptors on the endothelium and extensive arterial and venous endotheliitis. Acute hemorrhagic necrotizing encephalopathy is associated with a cytokine storm. Frontal hypoperfusion syndrome was confirmed. There are separate reports of seizures, encephalopathy, meningitis, encephalitis, and myelitis. Neuropathies affecting the PNS and muscles are less common in COVID-19 and include guillain-barre syndrome. The main conclusion of this review is the urgent need to define the neurology of COVID-19, its frequency symptoms neuropathology and etiology. On behalf of the World Federation of Neurology, we call on national and regional neurological societies to create local databases for reporting cases with neurological symptoms observed during the ongoing pandemic. International neuro epidemiological collaborations help define the natural history of this global problem [2].

The most recent information support the widespread worry that folks with disabilities area unit additional in danger of developing complications of COVID-19.The disabilities to possess underlying health problems and to measure in community care factors that increase the danger of infection. Affected people might have issue implementing routine hindrance measures though information in youngsters area unit still scarce it's been shown that those with underlying medicine conditions area unit additional probably to die from seasonal respiratory disease.

Against it should be appreciated that such measures limit access to medical care and rehabilitation services, which proscribing individual`s usual activities is probably going to induce mental stress this is applicable to healthy folks similarly as those with disabilities can be notably problematic for youngsters and adolescents, wherever social disadvantage to imprisonment rules and college closures are shown to cause difficulties and cut back quality of life. With the aim of elucidating a minimum of a part of this advanced situation, we tend to retrospectively investigate the impact of imprisonment measures obligatory in Italian region throughout the COVID-19 emergency in an exceedingly sample of youngsters with medicine and complicated disabilities [3].

Four decades of research on respiratory coronaviruses have demonstrated that these viruses cross the respiratory system and enter the nervous system, causing persistent brain infections in animals with or without induction of neurological disease. There is ample animal experimental evidence that coronaviruses can reach the brain by leaking from the lungs into the circulatory system or by axonal transport and transneural diffusion from olfactory and trigeminal nerve endings in the nasal epithelium. Experimentally, some coronaviruses can spread from mechanoreceptors and airway chemoreceptors to cardiopulmonary centers in the medulla oblongata. The virus can also be transmitted through the periventricular organs, which do not normally have a Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) the dorsal roots and autonomic ganglia. Enters the nervous system the aforementioned porcine coronavirus PHEMV can induce ganglionic infection of sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia after peripheral inoculation. Since SARS-CoV-2 can infect the vascular endothelium of peripheral organs.Systemic angioendotheliitis thereby promotes vasoconstriction, edema, and a procoagulant state with important implications for cerebrovascular accidents. The vascular endothelium is an active paracrine, endocrine, and autocrine organ essential for regulating vascular tone and maintaining vascular homeostasis. Endothelial microvascular dysfunction causes vasoconstriction with subsequent organ ischemia, inflammation with associated tissue edema and a prothrombotic state. Endothelial dysfunction is also an important factor in atherosclerosis [4].

Murine Hepatitis Virus (MHV) has shown potential neurological effects of neurotropic coronavirus infection. Neurotropic MHV strains induce acute encephalitis in mice, but animals surviving acute infection show chronic cerebral demyelination, which has been used to model multiple sclerosis. Interestingly using Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), Human CoronaVirus (HCoV in CerebroSpinal Fluid (CSF) and circulating antidetected HCoV. A juvenile nasopharyngeal discharge was detected. Antibodies and evidence on brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of demyelinating lesions diagnosed as Acute Disseminated Encephalo Myelitis (ADEM) [5].

Conclusion

Medicine and telerehabilitation have provided effective alternatives for the care and treatment of these children, but were not intended to be definitive models of care across the spectrum. Other emergency plans should address the special needs of children with disabilities.

References

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