Journal of Brain and Neurology

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Perspective - Journal of Brain and Neurology (2022) Volume 5, Issue 5

History of Human Neuropsychology in Parkinson's disease

Marina Sarno*

Department of Neurology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, United States

*Corresponding Author:
Marina Sarno
Department of Neurology
University of Iowa College of Medicine
United States
E-mail: [email protected]

Received: 30-Aug-2022, Manuscript No.AAJBN-22-69520; Editor assigned: 05-Sep-2022, PreQC No. AAJBN-22-69520(PQ); Reviewed: 19-Sep-2022, QC No. AAJBN-22-69520; Revised: 22-Sep-2022, Manuscript No.AAJBN-22-69520(R); Published: 27-Sep-2022, DOI: 10.35841/aajbn-5.5.124

Citation: Sarno M. History of human neuropsychology in parkinson's disease. J Brain Neurol. 2022;5(5):124

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Abstract

    

Introduction

Human mental function can be traced back to brain damage and dysfunction but its origins go back centuries. However the emergence of neuropsychology as a scientific field. A very relevant observation was Paul Broca's report that damage to the prefrontal motor area of the left hemisphere causes speech and language deficits Based on this finding, brain damage is caused by impairments in perception and object recognition behavioral control, decision-making, reasoning and intelligence motor planning spatial orientation and attention and memory. Other disorders are described. Early examination of individual patients with significant clinically recognizable defects was followed by examination of patient groups using standardized psychometric tests and statistical methods of data analysis was broken.

In the late neuropsychology became a separate scientific field with its own scientific journal published from the early. In humans, correlations between behavioral deficits and the location of the underlying brain lesions were initially based on postmortem autopsy findings. Since the late cortical brain stimulation of patients during awake surgery has also provided information on the localization of brain function. Since the late various non-invasive methods for in vivo brain visualization have become available to many patients. Through research on impairments in higher psychological functions caused by brain injury, neuropsychology has contributed to both the understanding of the neural and functional architecture of the mind and the diagnosis and rehabilitation of disorders in various sub processes [1].

Parkinson's Disease (PD) is one amongst the foremost common neurologi disorders. Diseases of the older within the and estimates of their prevalence. The condition is regarding to in folks between the ages of and age will increase from to when age idiopathic metallic element is primarily diagnosed within there are several conditions in life whose expression are often imitated throughout life. This is often what's known as brain disorder. Long-term use of neuroleptics, different neurodegenerative diseases. However, the identification idiopathic metallic element happensthroughclinical manifestations, significantly essential symptoms. Tremor brady kinesia orhypokinesia, musclemotor symptoms. These symptoms are neuropathology characterised by loss of cells within the parenchyma. The locus niger and different brain stem nuclei are Dopamine within the basal ganglia and different brain regions. The role such circuits play in psychological feature isn't shocking cognitive deficits also are determined in metallic element. Sometimes delicate within the disease onset, these will later turn out to be full-blown dementedness in some patients. Neuropsychological disorders related to metallic element and their effects recent neurosurgical interventions in metallic element have an effect on psychological feature [2].

Neuropsychological test results of patients with neurological disorders to study cognitive functions. This review identifies emerging literature on several disorders before focusing on the cognitive assumptions underlying research. In particular cognition can be viewed as a network of interrelated variables and changes in these interrelationships or reorganization of cognition can occur in neurological disorders [3].

Much of what is known about the relationship between brain and behavior comes from neuropsychological studies of patients with brain conditions, including stroke, as well as other conditions such as dementia, traumatic brain injury, Parkinson's disease, and brain tumours. Neuropsychologists use a variety of methods to understand the effects of brain pathology on brain function and cognition from a clinical and scientific perspective. This chapter describes the most common methods. They range from clinical and experimental neuropsychological methods for analyzing behavioral patterns in brain-injured patients to more precise structural definitions of the lesions involved and functional activation of brain regions involved in task performance. Imaging methods that allow In addition, we present the application of neuroelectrical, neuromagnetic, and neuromodulation techniques in neuropsychological patients. Unlike in its early days, neuropsychology today can benefit from better articulated psychological theories, standardized tests, advanced techniques, and sophisticated analysis, all of which combine to It can provide convergent evidence for the relationship between the human brain and behavior [4].

Impaired emotion recognition is well documented in Huntington's Disease (HD), but how do these relate to other aspects of social cognition, including first impressions of traits present a novel and sensitive method to examine our ability to assess reliability and dominance based on facial appearance using a control task that measures our ability to perceive differences between equivalent stimuli. This new method was used in conjunction with standard facial recognition tests to study social cognition in HD. We found that a subset of people with HD had impaired perceptions of trustworthiness and dominance, and that perceptions of trustworthiness and dominance correlated with impairments in facial expression recognition. To perform local Functional Anisotropy (FA) measurements among subgroups of HD participants with normal perception or impairment of reliability potentially relevant to social cognition Brain regions were tentatively identified, showing dominance contrast and these. Emotion recognition tests regionally correlate brain abnormalities with behavioral abilities [5].

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