Journal of Psychology and Cognition

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Short Communication - Journal of Psychology and Cognition (2023) Volume 8, Issue 6

From freud to positive psychology: a comprehensive overview of psychological theories

Mark Schaller *

Department of Clinical Psychology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands

*Corresponding Author:
Mark Schaller
Department of Clinical Psychology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands

Received: 23-Oct-2023, Manuscript No. AAJPC-23-119351; Editor assigned: 24-Oct-2023, PreQC No. AAJPC-23-119351; Reviewed:07-Nov-2023, QC No. AAJPC-23-119351; Revised:13-Nov-2023, Manuscript No. AAJPC-23-119351 (R); Published:22-Nov-2023, DOI:10.35841/ AAJPC -8.6.203

Citation: Schaller M. From freud to positive psychology: A comprehensive overview of psychological theories. J Psychol Cognition. 2023; 8(6):203

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The realm of psychology is a fascinating journey through the complexities of the human mind, exploring the depths of consciousness, behavior, and emotions. From its roots in Freudian psychoanalysis to the contemporary insights of positive psychology, the discipline has evolved significantly over the years. This comprehensive overview delves into the rich tapestry of psychological theories, tracing the trajectory from Freud to positive psychology [1, 2].

By examining the core tenets of various psychological paradigms, we gain a profound understanding of how human thought and behavior have been studied, analyzed, and interpreted across different eras. This exploration not only provides valuable historical context but also illuminates the interconnectedness of diverse theories that have shaped the field of psychology. The journey begins with Sigmund Freud, the pioneering figure whose psychoanalytic theories laid the foundation for modern psychology. Freud's emphasis on the unconscious mind, defense mechanisms, and the role of early childhood experiences revolutionized the way we perceive human behaviour [3, 4]

His theories, though controversial at times, introduced concepts like the id, ego, and superego, which remain integral to psychological discourse. Moving forward, behaviorism emerged as a dominant force, championed by psychologists like B.F. Skinner and Ivan Pavlov. Behaviorism focused on observable behavior, dismissing internal mental states. The principles of classical and operant conditioning elucidated how behaviors are learned and modified through environmental stimuli, paving the way for therapies like behavior modification and cognitive-behavioral therapy [5, 6 ].

In response to the perceived limitations of behaviorism, humanistic psychologists like Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers emphasized the significance of human potential, self-actualization, and personal growth. Existential psychologists like Viktor Frankly delved into the meaning of life and the human experience, highlighting the importance of individuality, free will, and responsibility in shaping one's destiny. The cognitive revolution in the mid-20th century brought cognition back into the spotlight. Cognitive psychology explored mental processes such as perception, memory, and problem-solving, unraveling the intricacies of human thought [7, 8].

Cognitive theories, including information processing models, shed light on how individuals acquire, process, and store information, leading to advancements in areas like cognitive therapy and artificial intelligence. The evolution of psychology culminates in positive psychology, a relatively recent paradigm introduced by Martin Seligman and others. Positive psychology shifts the focus from pathology and dysfunction to human strengths, virtues, and well-being. This approach explores topics like happiness, resilience, and positive emotions, offering practical interventions to enhance individuals' overall life satisfaction and fulfilment [9, 10].


In this comprehensive overview, we have traversed the fascinating landscape of psychological theories, from Freud's groundbreaking psychoanalysis to the optimistic realm of positive psychology. Each theory, with its unique perspective, has contributed to our understanding of the human mind and behavior. Freud's exploration of the unconscious, behaviorism's emphasis on observable actions, humanistic psychology's focus on personal growth, the cognitive revolution's insights into mental processes, and positive psychology's pursuit of well-being—all these threads are woven into the intricate tapestry of psychology

In conclusion, the study of psychology is not merely an academic pursuit but a profound exploration of our own humanity. By understanding the diverse theories that have shaped the discipline, we gain not only knowledge but also empathy and insight into the complexities of human nature. From Freud to positive psychology, this journey is a testament to the enduring curiosity and relentless determination of psychologists to illuminate the enigma of the human psyche. As we move forward, armed with the wisdom of the past, we are better equipped to face the challenges of the future, both as individuals and as a society


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