Rapid Communication - Journal of Molecular Oncology Research (2023) Volume 7, Issue 3
Emerging Immunotherapeutic Approaches for Cancer Treatment.
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA
- *Corresponding Author:
- Slack Arul
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Mayo Clinic, Rochester
MN, 55905, USA
Received: 02-May-2023, Manuscript No. AAMOR-23-95135; Editor assigned: 05-May-2023, PreQC No. AAMOR-23-95135(PQ); Reviewed: 19-May-2023, QC No. AAMOR-23-95135; Revised: 23-May-2023, Manuscript No. AAMOR-23-95135(R); Published: 30-May-2023, DOI: 10.35841/aamor-7.3.179
Citation: Galle R. Emerging Immunotherapeutic Approaches for Cancer Treatment. J Mol Oncol Res. 2023; 7(3):179
Cancer is a complex and heterogeneous disease that arises from the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in the genome of cells. Traditional cancer therapies, such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, have been used for decades, but their efficacy is limited by the development of resistance, toxicity, and lack of specificity for cancer cells. Immunotherapy, on the other hand, harnesses the power of the immune system to recognize and eliminate cancer cells, and has emerged as a promising approach for cancer treatment. In recent years, there have been several immunotherapeutic approaches that have shown remarkable success in clinical trials and have been approved for the treatment of different types of cancer. Here, we will discuss some of the emerging immunotherapeutic approaches for cancer treatment .
Checkpoint inhibitors: Checkpoint inhibitors are monoclonal antibodies that block the interactions between immune checkpoint proteins, such as programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), and their ligands, such as programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and B7.1/B7.2. By blocking these interactions, checkpoint inhibitors enhance the activity of T-cells and enable them to recognize and attack cancer cells. Checkpoint inhibitors have been approved for the treatment of various types of cancer, including melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, and renal cell carcinoma .
CAR-T cell therapy: Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy is a type of adoptive cell therapy that involves the engineering of T-cells with CARs that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of cancer cells. CAR-T cells are generated by isolating T-cells from the patient's blood, engineering them to express CARs specific for the target antigen, and expanding them in vitro. Once infused back into the patient, CAR-T cells recognize and eliminate cancer cells expressing the target antigen. CAR-T cell therapy has been approved for the treatment of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Oncolytic viruses: Oncolytic viruses are viruses that selectively replicate in and destroy cancer cells while sparing normal cells. Oncolytic viruses can be engineered to express therapeutic genes, such as cytokines, chemokines, and immune checkpoint inhibitors, to enhance their anti-tumor activity. Oncolytic viruses have shown promising results in clinical trials for various types of cancer, including melanoma, glioblastoma, and pancreatic cancer .
Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) therapy: TIL therapy involves the isolation and expansion of T-cells that have infiltrated a patient's tumor. TILs are isolated from tumor samples and expanded in vitro to generate a large number of T-cells that can recognize and attack the patient's cancer cells. TIL therapy has shown impressive results in clinical trials for melanoma, with response rates of up to 50%.
Immune agonists: Immune agonists are molecules that activate immune cells, such as T-cells and natural killer (NK) cells, to recognize and attack cancer cells. Immune agonists can be administered as monoclonal antibodies, peptides, or small molecules. Immune agonists targeting different immune receptors, such as OX40, 4-1BB, and CD40, have shown promising results in preclinical and clinical studies for various types of cance .
One of the challenges is identifying appropriate biomarkers that can predict response to immunotherapy. While immunotherapy has shown remarkable success in some patients, not all patients respond to the treatment. Biomarkers, such as PD-L1 expression, tumor mutation burden, and microsatellite instability, have been identified as potential predictors of response to immunotherapy, but more research is needed to validate these biomarkers and develop new ones. Another challenge is managing immune-related adverse events (irAEs), which can occur as a result of the activation of the immune system. IrAEs can affect multiple organs and can be severe, leading to treatment discontinuation or even death. Strategies to manage irAEs, such as early recognition and treatment, are important to minimize their impact on patients.
Finally, the high cost of immunotherapy is a significant barrier to its widespread adoption. The cost of CAR-T cell therapy, for example, can exceed $1 million per patient, making it unaffordable for many patients and healthcare systems. Efforts to reduce the cost of immunotherapy, such as improving manufacturing processes and negotiating lower prices with pharmaceutical companies, are needed to make these treatments more accessible to patients. Despite these challenges, the emergence of immunotherapeutic approaches for cancer treatment represents a significant advancement in the field of oncology. Continued research and innovation in immunotherapy have the potential to transform cancer treatment and improve outcomes for patient .
Immunotherapy has revolutionized cancer treatment and has opened new avenues for the development of cancer therapies. Emerging immunotherapeutic approaches, such as checkpoint inhibitors, CAR-T cell therapy, oncolytic viruses, TIL therapy, and immune agonists, have shown impressive results in clinical trials and have been approved for the treatment of several types of cancer. However, there are still challenges that need to be addressed to improve the efficacy and safety of immunotherapeutic approaches for cancer treatment.
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