Biology & Medicine Case Reports

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Perspective - Biology & Medicine Case Reports (2022) Volume 6, Issue 2

Effect of second hand smoke and their significance on child health.

Caroline Smith*

Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Mauritius, Reduit MU, Mauritius

*Corresponding Author:
Caroline Smith
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
University of Mauritius Reduit MU Mauritius E-mail: [email protected]

Received: 25-Feb-2022, Manuscript No. AABMCR-22-56749; Editor assigned: 26-Feb-2022, PreQC No. AABMCR-22-56749(PQ); Reviewed: 12-Mar-2022, QC No AABMCR-22-56749; Revised: 15-Mar-2022, Manuscript No. AABMCR-22-56749(R); Published: 22-Mar-2022, DOI:10.35841/aabmcr-6.2.107

Citation: Smith C. Effect of second hand Smoke and their significance on child health. Biol Med Case Rep. 2022;6(2):107

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Introduction

The smoke that a smoker exhales from the tip of a lighted cigarette, pipe, or cigar is known as second-hand smoke (also known as environmental tobacco smoke). It contains about 4,000 chemicals. Many of these compounds are dangerous, with more than 50 being connected to cancer. When children are exposed to second-hand smoke, these poisons are breathed by them.

Second-hand smoking causes a range of health problems in new-borns and children, including more frequent and severe asthma episodes, lung infections, ear infections, and SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome) (SIDS).

More than 1,000 new-borns perish each year as a result of smoking during pregnancy. Second-hand smoking causes a variety of health concerns in adults, including coronary heart disease, stroke, and lung cancer. An infant who is exposed to second-hand smoking is more likely to succumb to SIDS. Children are more prone to acquire serious health issues or have current issues deteriorate. Children who are exposed to second-hand smoking have a higher risk of developing asthma. Ear infections, ear infections, ear infections, ear infections, ear infections, Respiratory disorders include colds and coughs, as well as Bronchitis and Pneumonia. Tooth decay is another common condition.

Children, who are exposed to second-hand smoking, cough and wheeze more frequently and have a harder difficulty recovering from colds. They also miss a significant number of school days. Runny nose, headache, sore throat, eye discomfort, and hoarseness are all signs of second-hand smoking. Children with asthma are particularly vulnerable to second-hand smoke. It may cause more asthma episodes, which may be more severe and necessitate hospitalisation.

Lung cancer is caused by second-hand smoke

Secondhand smoke causes lung cancer in those who have never smoked. Nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke at home or at work had a 20–30% higher risk of lung cancer. In the United States, secondhand smoking kills more than 7,300 nonsmokers each year. Many of the same cancercausing chemicals and poisons are inhaled by nonsmokers as they are by smokers. Even brief exposure to secondhand smoke can destroy cells, triggering the cancer process. The longer and higher the degree of secondhand smoke exposure, similar to active smoking, the greater the risk of lung cancer [1].

SIDS is caused by secondhand smoke

Abrupt Infant Death Syndrome is the sudden, inexplicable, and unexpected death of an infant in the first year of life (SIDS). SIDS is the leading cause of death in otherwise healthy babies. Secondhand smoking makes SIDS more likely. During pregnancy, smoking raises the risk of SIDS. Infants who are exposed to secondhand smoke after birth are likewise more likely to succumb to SIDS. The brain's capacity to control newborns' respiration appears to be harmed by chemicals found in second-hand smoke. SIDS new-borns had greater nicotine levels and cotinine (a biological marker for second-hand smoking exposure) in their lungs than babies who die from other causes.

Children are harmed by secondhand smoke

Secondhand smoking can be harmful to children's health. Older children whose parents smoke are more likely to develop unwell, according to research. Their lungs do not grow as well as individuals who do not inhale secondhand smoke, making them more prone to bronchitis and pneumonia. Wheezing and coughing are more common in children who are exposed to secondhand smoking. Secondhand smoking might cause an asthma attack in a youngster. Children with asthma who are exposed to secondhand smoke had more severe and frequent asthma episodes. A severe asthma attack might put a child's life in peril. Children whose parents smoke around them are more likely to get ear infections. They also have more fluid in their ears and require more ear tube implantation procedures [2].

Cardiovascular disease

Secondhand smoking has been demonstrated to harm the cardiovascular system and increase the risk of heart attack, particularly in patients who already have heart disease. Nonsmokers who are exposed to second-hand smoke have a 25- 30% higher chance of developing heart disease. Second-hand smoke exposure is predicted to cause the deaths of 46,000 people per year due to heart disease. The risk of stroke is increased when secondhand smoke is consumed.

Effects on babies in the womb

Unborn newborns have been demonstrated to be harmed by secondhand smoking. When a pregnant woman smokes while pregnant, her kid generally weighs less at birth than newborns born to nonsmoking parents. One of the most prevalent reasons of neonatal mortality is low birth weight. Is more prone to developmental issues such as learning disabilities and cerebral palsy. Pregnant women who are just exposed to secondhand smoke are endangering their unborn children [3].

Effect on children's health

When children are exposed to secondhand smoke on a regular basis, their lungs grow more slowly. Some of the negative impacts of secondhand smoking on children include:

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is a condition in which an infant dies suddenly. It's a condition in which a baby dies unexpectedly. SIDS, or Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, happens when a kid under the age of one year dies suddenly and unexpectedly. Babies exposed to secondhand smoking have a higher risk of SIDS. SIDS is also increased when a mother smokes while pregnant [4].

Middle ear infection: According to a 2012 meta-analysis published in Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, children exposed to secondhand smoke had a significantly elevated risk of developing middle ear sickness. Inhaled cigarette smoke irritates the eustachian tube. As a result of the swelling, infections are the most common cause of hearing loss in children.

Keeping the risks to a minimum

The only way to properly protect little children is to put an end to it all. If you do smoke, make sure your kid is kept away from other smokers and that you smoke in a way that does not expose them to secondhand or third hand smoke.

Do not smoke in your home or allow others to do so. Opening windows or using air filters in an enclosed space is insufficient to protect individuals from secondhand smoking. In autos, smoking is prohibited. Even if there are no children around, it is important to remember that poisons settle on surfaces and will be exposed to them. Inside (restaurants, sporting events, friends' homes where smoking occurs, etc.) avoid exposing youngsters to second-hand smoke. Smokers should be maintained at a safe distance in outdoor spaces. Although outside air helps to dilute cigarette smoke, inhaling toxic air is still possible if the wind is blowing in one's direction.

Smokers should take their cigarettes outside, away from other people, especially youngsters and pregnant women. After cigarettes have been extinguished, smoke can linger in the air for hours. As a consequence, even if someone smokes alone in a room, others will inhale the smoke at some point. Smoke has an impact on people, their clothing, furniture, toys, and carpets. With washing and water, this "thirdhand smoke" is tough to eradicate. Children who come into touch with surfaces exposed to thirdhand smoke will absorb the toxic substances via their skin and inhale them. Before embracing or hugging children, smokers should wash their hands and change their clothes [5].

Smoking is not allowed in a car with other passengers, and even blowing smoke out the window lessens smoke exposure only somewhat. Also, don't be scared to speak up if you see someone smoking near a youngster. If the scenario gets unpleasant, respectfully ask the individual not to, but be ready to walk away from the smoker. If anyone else in the family smokes, provide them encouragement and support to help them quit. Quitting smoking is tough since it is so addicting. There are, however, a variety of support groups and tobaccofree efforts available to help individuals stop.

References

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