Mini Review - International Journal of Respiratory Medicine (2023) Volume 8, Issue 3
Complications of lung dysfunction in newborns: Pneumonia, pneumothorax and bronchopulmonary dysplasiaIleni Fiascone*
Department of Pediatrics, Tulane University Medical School, New Orleans, USA
- *Corresponding Author:
- Ileni Fiascone
Department of Pediatrics
Tulane University Medical School
New Orleans, USA
Received: 27-May-2023, Manuscript No. AAIJRM-23-103908; Editor assigned: 30-May-2023, PreQC No. AAIJRM-23-103908(PQ); Reviewed: 14-Jun-2023, QC No. AAIJRM-23-103908; Revised: 18-Jun-2023, Manuscript No. AAIJRM-23-103908(R); Published: 25-Jun-2023, DOI: 10.35841/aaijrm-8.3.152
Citation: Fiascone I. Complications of lung dysfunction in new-borns: Pneumonia, pneumothorax and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Int J Respir Med. 2023; 8(3):152
Lung dysfunction in new-born babies can lead to various complications that significantly impact their respiratory health and overall well-being. Three common complications associated with lung dysfunction in new-borns are pneumonia, pneumothorax and Bronchi Pulmonary Dysplasia (BPD). This article will delve into the pathophysiology, effects and management of these complications in new-borns. Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs that can occur in new-borns with compromised lung function. It can be caused by bacterial, viral, or fungal pathogens. In new-borns, pneumonia often arises from aspiration of infected amniotic fluid during delivery or from nosocomial infections acquired in the hospital setting. The immature immune system and underdeveloped lung defences make new-borns more susceptible to pneumonia. The effects of pneumonia on new-borns can be severe, leading to respiratory distress, decreased oxygenation, fever, poor feeding and lethargy. If left untreated, it can progress rapidly and result in sepsis, respiratory failure, or even death. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic therapy are crucial in managing pneumonia in new-borns .
Pneumothorax refers to the presence of air or gas in the pleural cavity, leading to lung collapse. In new-borns, pneumothorax commonly occurs in those with lung immaturity or underlying lung diseases, such as Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) or meconium aspiration syndrome. It can also be caused by trauma during delivery, positive pressure ventilation, or invasive procedures. The effects of pneumothorax in new-borns include respiratory distress, increased work of breathing and decreased lung compliance. The affected lung area becomes non-functional, impairing gas exchange and oxygenation. Additionally, pneumothorax can lead to cardiovascular compromise due to decreased venous return and reduced cardiac output. Prompt recognition and treatment, often through chest tube placement, are essential to re-expand the lung and restore normal respiratory function .
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, also known as chronic lung disease of prematurity, is a chronic lung condition that primarily affects premature infants. It typically arises in infants who required mechanical ventilation and supplemental oxygen for an extended period. The pathophysiology of BPD involves inflammation, injury to the developing lung tissue and abnormal repair processes. The effects of BPD can be long-lasting and include persistent respiratory symptoms, such as wheezing, increased work of breathing and decreased exercise tolerance. Infants with BPD are also prone to recurrent respiratory infections and may require on-going respiratory support. Furthermore, BPD can have developmental consequences, affecting growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes in affected infants [3,4].
Management of pneumonia, pneumothorax and BPD in new-borns involves a multidisciplinary approach. Timely diagnosis, appropriate antimicrobial therapy and supportive care are essential in treating pneumonia. Pneumothorax often requires prompt intervention with chest tube placement or needle aspiration to relieve the pressure and re-expand the collapsed lung. In the case of BPD, strategies focus on optimizing respiratory support, minimizing lung injury and promoting growth and development. This may involve the use of non-invasive ventilation, oxygen therapy and nutritional support .
In conclusion, lung dysfunction in new-borns can lead to several complications, including pneumonia, pneumothorax, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs that can be caused by various pathogens and can result in severe respiratory distress in new-borns. Pneumothorax, on the other hand, occurs when air accumulates in the pleural space, causing lung collapse and impaired breathing. It is often associated with lung diseases and can further exacerbate respiratory problems in new-borns.
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