Commentary - Integrative Neuroscience Research (2023) Volume 6, Issue 3
Cellular and molecular basis of neurodegenerative Diseases: Unraveling the pathological cascade
Wardak Lothar *
Department of Neurological Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy
- *Corresponding Author:
- Wardak Lothar
Department of Neurological Sciences,
University of Verona,
Received: 31-May-2023, Manuscript No. AAINR-23-101807; Editor assigned: 03-Jun-2023, PreQC No. AAINR-23-101807(PQ); Reviewed: 17-Jun-2023, QC No. AAINR-23-101807; Revised: 22-Jun-2023, Manuscript No. AAINR-23-101807; Published: 29-Jun-2023, DOI:10.35841/aainr-6.3.149
Citation: Lothar W. Cellular and molecular basis of neurodegenerative Diseases: Unraveling the pathological cascade. Integr Neuro Res. 2023;6(3):149
Neurodegenerative diseases pose a significant burden on global healthcare systems, affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Understanding the cellular and molecular basis of these disorders is essential for developing effective therapeutic strategies. This article provides an in-depth exploration of the pathological cascade underlying neurodegenerative diseases, shedding light on the intricate cellular and molecular mechanisms involved .
This section provides a comprehensive overview of major neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. It discusses the clinical features, affected brain regions, and common neuropathological hallmarks associated with these disorders. Protein misfolding and aggregation are central events in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. This section delves into the cellular and molecular mechanisms that contribute to abnormal protein folding, such as changes in protein conformation, post-translational modifications, and impaired proteostasis. It explores the role of misfolded proteins, including amyloid-beta, tau, alpha-synuclein, and mutant huntingtin, in disease progression .
Neuroinflammation and glial activation play critical roles in neurodegenerative diseases. This section examines the intricate interplay between neurons and glial cells, including microglia and astrocytes, in the context of neuroinflammation. It explores the release of pro-inflammatory factors, the activation of immune signaling pathways, and the potential contribution of chronic neuroinflammation to disease progression. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a common feature observed in many neurodegenerative diseases. This section explores the role of impaired mitochondrial function, including energy production deficits, reactive oxygen species generation, and disrupted calcium homeostasis, in disease pathogenesis. It also discusses the interplay between mitochondrial dysfunction and other pathological events .
Excitotoxicity and synaptic dysfunction contribute to neuronal damage and cognitive decline in neurodegenerative diseases. This section examines the dysregulation of glutamate signaling, calcium overload, and impaired synaptic plasticity as key contributors to excitotoxicity and synaptic dysfunction. It highlights the detrimental effects on neuronal communication and the subsequent impact on disease progression. Genetic and environmental factors influence the development and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. This section discusses the contribution of specific genetic mutations, susceptibility genes, epigenetic modifications, and environmental factors to disease susceptibility and pathogenesis. It emphasizes the interplay between genetic predisposition and environmental triggers .
Advances in cellular and molecular neuroscience have paved the way for novel therapeutic strategies for neurodegenerative diseases. This section highlights emerging therapeutic approaches, including gene therapies, targeted protein degradation, neuroprotective strategies, and modulators of cellular processes implicated in disease pathology. It also discusses challenges and future directions in therapeutic development .
The cellular and molecular basis of neurodegenerative diseases is a complex and multifaceted topic. By unraveling the pathological cascade underlying these disorders, we gain crucial insights into disease mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets. Continued research in cellular and molecular neuroscience will be pivotal in the development of effective treatments, ultimately improving the lives of individuals affected by neurodegenerative diseases
- Martin JB. Molecular basis of the neurodegenerative disorders. N Engl J Med. 1999;340(25):1970-80.
- Zeng XS, Geng WS, Jia JJ, et al. Cellular and molecular basis of neurodegeneration in Parkinson disease. Front Aging Neurosci. 2018;10:109.
- Agnello L, Ciaccio M. Neurodegenerative diseases: From molecular basis to therapy. Int J Mol Sci. 2022;23(21):12854.
- Kweon JH, Kim S, Lee SB. The cellular basis of dendrite pathology in neurodegenerative diseases. BMB reports. 2017;50(1):5.
- Rubinsztein DC, Carmichael J. Huntington's disease: Molecular basis of neurodegeneration. Expert Rev Mol Med. 2003;5(20):1-21.