Microbiology: Current Research

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Short Communication - Microbiology: Current Research (2023) Volume 7, Issue 2

Antimicrobial resistance: Strategies for a global health threat

Mariana Henrik*

Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author:
Mariana Henrik
Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology
University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
E-mail: henrik.mariana@gmail.com

Received: 30-Mar-2023, Manuscript No. AAMCR-23-97331; Editor assigned: 03-Apr-2023, Pre QC No. AAMCR-23-97331(PQ); Reviewed: 17-Apr-2023, QC No. AAMCR-23-97331; Revised: 21-Apr-2023, Manuscript No. AAMCR-23-97331(R); Published: 28-Apr-2023, DOI: 10.35841/aamcr-7.2.144

Citation: Henrik M. Antimicrobial resistance: Strategies for a global health threat. J Micro Curr Res. 2023;7(2):144

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Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a growing global health threat that poses a significant challenge to modern medicine. It occurs when microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites, evolve and become resistant to the drugs that were once used to treat them. This phenomenon has made it increasingly difficult to prevent and control infectious diseases, resulting in longer hospital stays, higher healthcare costs, and increased morbidity and mortality rates worldwide.


Drug resistance, Antibiotics, Bacteria, Antimicrobial agents.


The World Health Organization (WHO) has designated AMR as one of the top ten global public health threats facing humanity. According to the WHO, approximately 700,000 people die each year due to AMR, and this number is expected to rise to 10 million by 2050 if no action is taken. Therefore, it is crucial to develop and implement strategies to combat AMR to mitigate the negative impact of this phenomenon. One of the most important strategies to combat AMR is through the responsible use of antimicrobial agents. This involves ensuring that antimicrobial drugs are used only when necessary, at the correct dose, and for the appropriate duration. Healthcare professionals must prescribe antibiotics only when they are needed, and patients must take the full course of antibiotics as prescribed. This helps to reduce the selective pressure that drives the evolution of resistant microorganisms. Additionally, health care facilities must implement effective infection prevention and control measures to reduce the transmission of resistant organisms [1].

Another important strategy is to develop new antimicrobial agents to combat resistant microorganisms. However, the development of new drugs is costly, time-consuming, and fraught with challenges. To address this issue, several initiatives have been established to incentivize the development of new drugs, such as the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Generating Antibiotic Incentives Now (GAIN) program and the European Union's Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI). These initiatives aim to provide financial support to companies that develop new antimicrobial agents, as well as to facilitate collaboration between academia, industry, and regulatory authorities [2].

In addition to developing new drugs, it is also important to explore alternative approaches to combating AMR, such as the use of phage therapy and probiotics. Phage therapy involves the use of bacteriophages, which are viruses that infect and kill bacteria. This approach has been used for decades in Eastern Europe, but it has received renewed interest in recent years due to the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Probiotics, on the other hand, involve the use of beneficial bacteria to prevent or treat infections. This approach has shown promise in preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea and recurrent urinary tract infections. The appropriate use of vaccines is another strategy to combat AMR. Vaccines help to prevent infections, reducing the need for antibiotics and subsequently the selective pressure on microorganisms to develop resistance. For example, the pneumococcal vaccine has been effective in reducing the incidence of pneumococcal infections, which are a common cause of bacterial pneumonia and meningitis. Additionally, the development of new vaccines for antibiotic-resistant pathogens, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), could be an important step towards combating AMR [3].

Global cooperation is also crucial to combat AMR. Microorganisms do not respect national borders, and the spread of resistant strains is a global issue. Therefore, a coordinated global response is needed to tackle this challenge. The WHO has developed a global action plan on AMR, which aims to provide a framework for action by governments, healthcare professionals, and the pharmaceutical industry. This plan includes measures such as strengthening surveillance and laboratory capacity, promoting public awareness and education, and encouraging the development of new drugs and alternative therapies [4].

Furthermore, the One Health approach, which recognizes the interconnectedness of human, animal, and environmental health, is essential to combating AMR. The overuse and misuse of antibiotics in animal husbandry and agriculture can contribute to the development and spread of resistant microorganisms. Therefore, efforts must be made to reduce the use of antibiotics in these sectors and to promote good practices such as vaccination, improved hygiene, and biosecurity measures. Finally, public awareness and education are critical to combat AMR. Many people are unaware of the consequences of AMR, and there is a lack of understanding of the appropriate use of antibiotics. Therefore, it is important to engage with the public and raise awareness about the issue. This can be done through public campaigns, educational programs in schools and universities, and by engaging with the media [5].


AMR is a growing global health threat that requires a multifaceted approach to combat. Strategies such as the responsible use of antimicrobial agents, the development of new drugs and alternative therapies, the appropriate use of vaccines, global cooperation, the One Health approach, and public awareness and education are all important in the fight against AMR. It is crucial that we take action now to prevent a future where common infections become untreatable and routine medical procedures become high-risk procedures. By working together, we can mitigate the impact of AMR and ensure that antibiotics remain effective in treating infections for generations to come.


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