Perspective - Journal of Clinical and Experimental Toxicology (2023) Volume 7, Issue 1
Adverse effects of nanomaterials on the environment.
Department of Forensic Toxicology, Stanford University, Stanford, United states
- Corresponding Author:
- Martin Wennig
Department of Forensic Toxicology
Stanford University, Stanford
Received: 29-Dec-2022, Manuscript No. AACETY-23-86823; Editor assigned: 31-Dec-2022, PreQC No. AACETY-23-86823(PQ); Reviewed: 14-Jan-2023, QC No. AACETY-23-86823; Revised: 17-Jan-2023, Manuscript No. AACETY-23-86823(R); Published: 24-Jan-2023, DOI: 10.35841/2630-4570-7.1.132
Citation: Wennig M. Adverse effects of nanomaterials on the environment. J Clin Exp Tox. 2023;7(1):132
The toxicity of nanoparticles stems from their small size, which allows them to penetrate these basic biological structures and disrupt their normal function. Inhaled nanoparticles may cause lung inflammation and heart problems in the body. Breathing in diesel soot causes a general inflammatory response and alters the system that regulates involuntary functions in the cardiovascular system, such as heart rate control, according to human studies. Nanomaterials that make their way into the soil have the potential to contaminate it and migrate into surface and ground waters. Wind or rainwater runoff can transport particles from solid waste, waste water effluents, direct discharges, or accidental spills into aquatic systems.
Nanomaterials appear to have toxicity effects that are unusual and not seen with larger particles, and these smaller particles may pose a greater threat to the human body due to their ability to move with a much greater degree of freedom, whereas the human body is designed to attack larger particles rather than those of the nanoscale . Even inert elements, such as gold, become highly active at nanometer dimensions. Nanotoxicological research seeks to determine whether and to what extent these properties may endanger the environment and humans. Nanoparticles have much higher surface area to unit mass ratios, which may result in greater proinflammatory effects in some cases, such as lung tissue. Furthermore, some nanoparticles appear to be capable of translocating from their site of deposition to distant locations such as the blood and the brain . Nanoparticles can be inhaled, swallowed, absorbed through the skin, and injected intentionally or unintentionally during medical procedures. They could be released accidentally or inadvertently from materials implanted into living tissue.
Cosmetics, coatings, paints, and catalytic additives that contain nanoparticles can all release nanoparticles into the environment in different ways . Nanoparticles enter the environment in three different ways. The first is emission during raw material production, such as mining and refining operations. The second type of emission occurs during use, such as cosmetics or sunscreen being washed into the environment. The third is emission from nanoparticle products after disposal or use during waste treatment, such as nanoparticles in sewage and wastewater streams. Even in fume hoods, a significant amount of nanoparticles are released during the handling of dry powders. Particles on construction sites may be exposed to the atmosphere for an extended period of time, increasing their likelihood of entering the environment . Nanoparticles in concrete construction and recycling pose a new hazard during the demolition process, potentially posing even greater environmental risks. Copper and zinc oxide nanoparticles that enter the environment can also act as chemosensitizers in sea urchin embryos. It is predicted that sunscreen exposure will be the most common way for animals in aquatic systems to be exposed to harmful metal particles .
Nanomaterials' extremely small size also means that they enter the human body much more easily than larger particles. The question of how these nanoparticles behave inside the body remains unanswered. Nanoparticles' behaviour is determined by their size, shape, and surface reactivity with the surrounding tissue. In theory, a large number of particles could overwhelm the body's phagocytes, which ingest and destroy foreign matter, triggering stress reactions that cause inflammation and weaken the body's defence against other pathogens . Aside from concerns about what happens if non-degradable or slowly degradable nanoparticles accumulate in bodily organs, there is also concern about their potential interaction or interference with biological processes within the body. Because of their large surface area, nanoparticles will immediately adsorb some of the macromolecules they encounter when exposed to tissue and fluids. Broken skin is an ineffective particle barrier, implying that acne, eczema, shaving wounds, or severe sunburn may accelerate nanomaterial uptake by the skin.
- Winkler DA, Burden FR, Yan B, et al. Modelling and predicting the biological effects of nanomaterials. SAR QSAR Environ Res. 2014;25(2):161-72.
- Kwak JI, An YJ. The current state of the art in research on engineered nanomaterials and terrestrial environments: Different-scale approaches. Environ Res. 2016;151:368-82.
- Rezvani E, Rafferty A, McGuinness C, et al. Adverse effects of nanosilver on human health and the environment. Acta Biomater. 2019;94:145-59.
- Handy RD, Shaw BJ. Toxic effects of nanoparticles and nanomaterials: implications for public health, risk assessment and the public perception of nanotechnology. Health Risk Soc. 2007;9(2):125-44.
- Winkler DA. Recent advances, and unresolved issues, in the application of computational modelling to the prediction of the biological effects of nanomaterials. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2016;299:96-100.
- Griffitt RJ, Luo J, Gao J, et al. Effects of particle composition and species on toxicity of metallic nanomaterials in aquatic organisms. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2008;27(9):1972-8.