Opinion Article - Journal of Public Health and Nutrition (2023) Volume 6, Issue 2
A review of factor associated with alcohol abuse among youthsEmmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu1*, Getrude Uzoma Obeagu2
1Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Kampala International University, Uganda
2Department of Nursing Science, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
- *Corresponding Author:
- Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu
Department of Medical Laboratory Science
Kampala International University, Uganda
Received: 28-Dec-2022, Manuscript No. AAJPHN-22-84862; Editor assigned: 31-Dec-2022, PreQC No. AAJPHN-22-84862 (PQ); Reviewed: 24-Jan-2023, QC No AAJPHN-22-84862; Revised: 22-Feb-2023, Manuscript No. AAJPHN-22-84862(R); Published: 02-Mar-2023, DOI:10.35841/aajphn-6.2.142
Citation: Obeagu EI. A review of factor associated with alcohol abuse among youths K. A review of factor associated with alcohol abuse among youths. J Pub Health Nutri. 2023;6(2):142
Alcohol is an intoxicating ingredient found in beer, wine and liquor. Alcohol is produced by fermentation of yeast, sugar and starches. Alcohol abuse is a maladaptive pattern of use of a psychoactive substance, indicated by continued use despite of knowledge of having persistent or recurrent social, occupational, physiological or physical problems that are caused or exacerbated by the use. The major factors that contribute to alcohol abuse among youth are environmental factors which include availability, presence of local breweries and persuasive advertisements followed by socio-economic factors like unemployment, peer pressure, social norms, stress, boredom, family neglect among others. The effects of alcohol abuse are poverty, gastric ulcers, death.
Fermentation, Environmental factors, Socio-economic factors, Peer pressure, Alcohol abuse.
Alcohol is an intoxicating ingredient found in beer, wine and liquor. Alcohol is produced by fermentation of yeast, sugar and starches. It is a central nervous system depressant that is rapidly absorbed from the stomach and small intestine into the blood stream. A standard drink equals to 0.6 ounces of pure ethanol or 12 ounces of beer,8 ounces of matt liqor,5 ounces of wine or 1.5 ounces of 80-proof distilled spirits or liquor [1-4]
Alcohol abuse is a maladaptive pattern of use of a psychoactive substance, indicated by continued use despite of knowledge of having persistent or recurrent social, occupational, physiological or physical problems that are caused or exacerbated by the use. It is the residual category, with dependence taking presence when applicable. The term abuse is sometimes used inappropriately to refer to any use at all, particularly of illicit drugs .
Alcohol abuse is known to be a major problem in causing domestic violence, accidents, and other causes of deaths in homes [6,7].
Factors associated with alcohol abuse among youth aged 15-25 years
Environmental factors: Uncontrolled availability of alcoholic beverages: Although availability of alcoholic beverages is determine by law and public norms, this condition is analyzed as separate factor stimulating alcohol use. Alcohol is easily available and drinking is accepted as a norm in functions and social gatherings .
Persuasive advertisements: Studies found out that the exposure to alcohol advertisements was associated with the onset of adolescent alcohol consumption among baseline non-drinkers, as well as with greater consumption of alcohol by adolescent drinker. while exposure to television and other broadcast media was linked to the initiation of alcohol consumption. And it was found that the impact of advertising was potentially strongest in younger age groups, and on 15 to 17yas old girls .
Prices/taxation: The greater price elasticity of alcohol consumption by youth can be expected because of their smaller budget and a counterargument is that as considerable proportion of youth’s alcohol budget is spent on beer, the price elasticity may be lower than expected . A recent study concluded that price elasticity of consumption by youths is greater than by the populations at large .
Presence of breweries and other local manufacturers of alcoholic beverages: It’s also noted that the presence of breweries and local manufacturers increases outlet density which is an important determinant of alcohol consumption among the youths and adolescents as it also determines the general availability of alcohol. The Scandinavian review summarized evidence from several natural experiments, concluding that greater alcohol outlet density was associated with increases in alcohol consumption and alcohol- related morbidity and mortality .
Income status: One study has found a significant link between greater pocket money and increased alcohol consumption among 14 year old in Finland . Study found that UK children aged 15-16 years who had greater expendable income were more likely to exceed guidance on amount consumed.
Family attitudes and practices: One potentially important family-level determinant of adolescents and youths alcohol initiation and intensity of use is parental provision of alcohol. Studies also found out that provision of alcohol in the 7th grade significantly increased the odds for heavy alcohol drinking in girls after two years. It has been suggested that learning process may contribute in a more specific way to development of alcohol dependence through the repeated experience of withdrawal syndromes. On this view, relief of withdrawal symptoms by alcohol may act as reinforcement for further drinking.
Peers pressure: A large body of research has revealed that peers have strong influence on the development of adolescents substance use; adolescents who have substance-using friends are more likely to use substances. Pressure within the group may result in the individual member acquiring habits that may be maladaptive such as alcohol or substance use as to have sense of belonging or acceptance.
Poor copying strategies: The person unable to face the stress often resorts to alcoholism. The defense mechanism involved in alcoholism includes denial, rationalization and projection . Other factors include relive of stress, boredom, family neglect, loss of job and social norms.
The major factors that contribute to alcohol abuse among youth are environmental factors which include availability, presence of local breweries and persuasive advertisements followed by socio-economic factors like unemployment, peer pressure, social norms, stress, boredom, family neglect among others. The effects of alcohol abuse are poverty, gastric ulcers, death etc.
- National Institute on Alcohol and Alcoholism. Alcohol use and alcohol use disorders in united states, a 3-year follow-up: main findings from the 2004-2005 wave 2 National epidemiological survey on alcohol and related conditions (NESARC). US Alcohol epidemiological data Reference Manual. 2010;8(2):7677.
- CN Vincent C, Ifeanyi Obeagu E, Stephina Agu I, et al. Prevalence and Pattern of Psychoactive Substance use among Senior Secondary School Students in Community Secondary School, Umuna, Orlu LGA. J Pharm Res Int. 2021;33(57A):59-67.
- Ibebuike JE, Nwokike IG, Iquiro AA, et al. Prevalence Of Substance Abuse Among Students of Eziach Senior Secondary School Orlu Local Government Area, Imo State. World J Pharm Pharmaceu Sci. 2017;6(10):1519-25.
- Okorie N, Obeagu EI, Adeniran OC, et al. Codeine Substitute Challenges Drug and Substance Abuse Controls in Nigeria: Histopathology Evaluations of Norvegicus rattus on Lacatomtom. J Complementary and Alternative Med Res.2022;19(1):8-22.
- World Health Organization (WHO). Fact sheets. 2015.
- Okorie N, Ifeanyi Obeagu E, et al. Histopathological Effect of Emzolyn Codein Cough Syrup on Lungs and Its Oxidative Stress Biomarkers. J Pharmaceu Res Int. 33(49B):228-240.
- Offie DC, Ekanem E, Femi O, et al. Determinants of Psychoactive Substance Use Among Young People In Ado Ekiti, South West, Nigeria. World J Pharm Pharmaceu Sci. 2022;11(4):140-65.
- Nambi S. Psychiatry for Nurses. ByJaypee brothers (p) medical LTD. 2005.
- Jackson C, Henriksen L, Dickinson D. Alcohol-specific socialization, parenting behaviors and alcohol use by children. J Stud Alcohol. 1999;60(3):362-7.
- Rabinovich L, Brutscher PB, de Vries H, et al. The affordability of alcoholic beverages in the European Union. Cambridge, RAND Europe. 2009.
Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref