Journal of Agricultural Science and Botany

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Letter to Editor - Journal of Agricultural Science and Botany (2021) Volume 5, Issue 10

A brief overview of food science and agricultural chemistry

MM Youssef*

Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Alexandria, Egypt

*Corresponding Author:
MM Youssef
Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Alexandria, Egypt
E-mail: [email protected]

Accepted on October 11, 2021

Citation: Youssef MM. A brief overview of food science and agricultural chemistry. J Agric Sci Bot. 2021;5(10): 073.

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Letter

"The subject in which the engineering, biological, and physical sciences are employed to research the nature of foods, the reasons of degradation, the principles underpinning food processing, and the improvement of foods for the consuming public," according to the Institute of Food Technologists. Food science is defined as "the application of basic sciences and engineering to investigate the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of foods, as well as the principles of food processing" in the textbook Food Science.

Food science is a multidisciplinary field that combines chemistry, biochemistry, nutrition, microbiology, and engineering to provide scientists with the scientific understanding needed to tackle real-world challenges related to the food system's numerous sides. Understanding the chemistry of food components such as proteins, carbs, lipids, and water, as well as the reactions they undergo during preparation and storage is the foundation of the study. The ability to do food constituent analysis, as well as statistical quality control approaches, is being developed. Food microbiology and safety are equally important to comprehend. Food additives, food physic-chemical characteristics, flavour chemistry, product development, food engineering, and packaging are among the other topics discussed. Food science brings together all of this knowledge and concentrates it on food.

Food chemistry is the study of all biological and non-biological components of foods' chemical processes and interactions. Meat, poultry, lettuce, beer, and milk are examples of biological substances. It comprises areas like as water, vitamins, minerals, enzymes, food additives, flavours, and colours, and is comparable to biochemistry in terms of its main components such as carbohydrates, lipids, and protein. This field also includes how products change as a result of various food processing procedures, as well as ways to improve or prevent this from happening.

Food science is still a young and developing discipline, mostly as a result of socioeconomic changes in North America and other affluent countries. The food sector, which once simply provided basic ingredients for home cooking, is now reacting to market demands for increasingly refined, sophisticated, and handy items. The demand for convenient, easy-to-prepare foods offers significant scientific and technological hurdles that cannot be solved without highly qualified experts who are familiar with the intricate chemistry/biochemistry of food systems as well as preservation technologies. As society's reliance on ready-to-eat foods has grown, processors have taken on more responsibility in terms of quality, safety, and nutrition. Scientific principles and new technology are being applied to food processing in order to ensure high quality and competitive goods, and the body of knowledge required has become Food Science.

Food microbiology

Microorganisms that inhabit, manufacture, or contaminate food are studied in food microbiology, as are microorganisms that cause food rotting. In food science, however, "good" bacteria, such as probiotics, are becoming increasingly significant. Microorganisms are also required for the manufacture of fermented foods such as cheese, yoghurt, bread, beer, wine, and other beverages.

Food technology

Food preservation was the focus of early scientific research into food technology. The invention of the canning method by Nicolas Appert in 1810 was a watershed moment. Although the procedure wasn't called canning at the time, and Appert didn't fully understand the theory behind it, canning has had a significant impact on food preservation techniques.

Foodomics

"A discipline that examines the Food and Nutrition domains through the application and integration of advanced -omics technologies to improve consumer well-being, health, and knowledge,” is according to the definition. Foodomics necessitates a synthesis of food chemistry, biology, and data analysis. Foodomics considerably aids scientists working in the fields of food science and nutrition in gaining greater access to data that can be used to assess the impact of food on human health, among other things. It is thought to be another step toward a better understanding of technological development and application in the food industry. Furthermore, foodomics research leads to other omics sub-disciplines, such as nutrigenomics, which combines nutrition, genetics, and omics research.

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