Case Report - Current Pediatric Research (2018) Volume 22, Issue 4
Varicella zoster Virus Reactivation in Otherwise Healthy Child.
Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) is a human viral infection. Reactivation of the latent VZV infection manifests as herpes zoster. Reactivation in children is rare as the age is the number one risk factor for reactivation. Complications of the infection include Post-Herpetic Neuralgia (PHN), a bacterial infection of the crusted skin, and neurological complications. We present a case of a 13-year-old child with herpes zoster infection accompanied by multiple risk factors. The patient presented to the emergency department complaining of a painful vesicular rash affecting the right side of his face. The rash appeared as multiple grouped vesicles on an erythematous base. After a thorough history, physical examination, and investigation; he was diagnosed with herpetic (varicella) vesiculobullous dermatitis. A subsequent pathology report confirmed the diagnosis. He was treated accordingly with a marked improvement by the second week. Reactivation of VZV infection in children is rare at a rate of (0.74/1000 person-years) among the 0 to 9-year-old age group and (1.38/1000 person-years) in 10 to 19-year-old age group. It is theorized to be a consequence of decreased cell-mediated immunity. Nonetheless, the reason of reactivation in immunocompetent children remains unclear. In the presented case, the patient may possibly have got exposed either in utero, through vaccination, or from major facial trauma.Author(s): Rawia Albar, Alhussain Alzahrani, Mohammed Alzahrani, Abdulhameed Bokhari, Abdullah Abdulsalam Ghouth Ali