Short Communication - Gynecology and Reproductive Endocrinology (2021) Volume 5, Issue 1
Trend and factors associated with adverse birth weight in Uruguayan children between 2009 and 2015
Statement of the Problem: The size of the newborn determines the health and development in the first months of life, for this reason it is considered as a variable of importance and permanent study as a marker of the health status in countries. The purpose of this study is to identify the trend and maternal factors associated with adverse birth weight.
Methods: Cross-sectional design. The analysis uses the 2009-2015 Uruguay’s data on 303,625 newborns.
Results: The prevalence of macrosomia (> 3,999g) has increased from 7.0% to 8.4%. The prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) (< 2,500g) decreased, standing at 6.6%. The factors that determine more possibilities of LBW were maternal pathologies: preeclampsia (OR = 4.80; CI95%= 4.57- 5.05), previous hypertension (OR = 2.11; CI95%= 1.96-2.27), hypertensive disease of pregnancy (OR = 1.82; CI95%= 1.74- 1.90). Inadequate controls (OR = 2.29; CI95%= 2.20-2.39), low pre-maternal maternal weight (OR = 1.65; CI95%= 1.58-1.74), maternal smoking (OR = 1.36; CI95% = 1.32-1.40) and shorter duration of pregnancy (OR = 2.52; CI95%= 2.50-2.55). The results also showed interactions: association between LBW and hypertensive pregnancy disease varies between gestation weeks (OR = 1.07; CI95% = 1.03-1,11), the relationship with preeclampsia varies according to weeks of gestation (OR = 1.05; CI95% = 1.01-1.11) and the number of controls (OR = 1.04; CI95% = 1.01-1.06) Macrosomia was associated with type 1 diabetes (OR = 2.21; CI95%= 1.86-2.61), Type 2 or Gestational (OR = 1.78; CI95%= 1.70-1.87), obesity maternal (OR = 2.33; CI95%= 2.24-2.43) and longer gestation duration (OR = 2.62; CI95%= 2.53-2.72).
Conclusions: LBW decreases while macrosomia increases. The health and nutritional status of women at the beginning of pregnancy, pathologies of the last trimester, smoking, shorter duration of pregnancy and inadequate controls are associated with LBW. Overweight, obesity and metabolic diseases determine macrosomiaAuthor(s): Isabel Pereyra Gonzalez