Review Article - Journal of RNA and Genomics (2022) Volume 0, Issue 0
Natural nutrients and safe drugs as potential treatment in COVID-19 and Fragile X Syndrome (FXS).
SARS-CoV-2 interacts with ACE2 and infects ACE2-expressing epithelial and endothelial cells in lung and other organs, leading to the down-regulation of ACE2. This induces Ang II accumulation. The interaction of angiotensin II with its G-protein coupled receptor results in the activation of phosphodiesterase phospholipase C and release of cytokines and eicosanoids (leukotrienes, prostaglandin, and thromboxane A2). Phospholipase C degrades membrane-bound phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) to inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) and Diacylglycerol (DAG). This results in the release of cytokines and eicosanoids (leukotrienes, prostaglandin, and thromboxane A2) and lack of B cell-T cell communication (immune synapse) and abnormal antibodies function which results in pro-inflammatory cytokines release and regulation of transcription of viral and host proteins. In the absence of Fragile X Retardation Mental Protein (FMRP) as occurs in Fragile X Syndrome (FXS), it has been described an increased DAG levels that lead to the pathologic features of FXS. Then, the absence of FMRP would lead to increased DAG levels, hence elevation of the Ca2+ intracellular, and contribute to damaging effects of DAG in COVID-19. This fact might be involved in impaired antibody developing. This article collects for the first time the links between both COVID-19 and FXS, and propose FXS as a risk factor in COVID-19, as well as COVID-19 could impair FXS symptoms. It described the potential role of described pathways in potential drugs for COVID-19 and FXS treatment.Author(s): Marcos Altable*, Emilio DAAaz-Moreno, Adnan Srifi Hasnaoui, Alfonso Cruzado, Juan MoisAAs de la Serna