Research Article - Journal of RNA and Genomics (2022) Volume 0, Issue 0
Mini review Metformin toxicity Mezgebu Legesse Habte.
One of the widely used and frequently prescribed oral anti-hyperglycemic drugs is metformin. It is a family of biguanide and used to regulate hyperglycemic condition through inhibition of hepatic glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. In addition, metformin enhances glucose uptake by peripheral tissue in type 2 diabetes. Several studies showed that metformin is safe and well tolerated antihyperglycemic drug throughout the world. In contrast, there are reports that indicate metformin induces toxicity. One common and serious mechanism by which metformin induces toxicity is initiation of lactic acidosis. According to different studies, metformin induced acidosis become fatal especially when higher dose is taken and the patients have other health problem like kidney and lung diseases. Metformin also inhibits mitochondrial electron transport chain by blocking complex-I and leads to mitochondrial poisoning. Type 2 diabetic patients who use metformin for a long period of time have high chance to experience anemia and neurological damage due to metformin induced vitamin B12 deficiency. To reduce metformin induced poisoning there are guidelines, which all patients and physicians need to follow. Before starting metformin treatment, patients should have to perform vital organ function tests like kidney and liver function test, and measure serum vitamin B12 level. In addition, lower dose of metformin is recommended at the beginning with vitamin B12 supplement. Once intoxication happened, immediate management and treatment must be given to reduce severe complications and mortality rate.Author(s): Function of RNA, including mRNA, tRNA, rRNA and ribozymes, RNA editing, RNA chemistry