Research Article - Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology (2018) Volume 2, Issue 3
Contemporary Understanding Of Vibrio Cholerae And Cholera Outbreaks.
Background: Cholera is an infectious disease caused by Vibrio cholera and transmitted by the fecal-oral route. The major source of V. cholerae outbreaks infection in human is infected water and food which is the most common vehicle and cholera toxin has been incriminated in the virulence. Objectives: This review is to give previous and recent knowledge V. cholerae and cholera outbreaks. Material and Method: Searching engines, electronic databases and web sites (Google, Bing, PubMed, ASM etc.) were searched randomly for epidemiology, symptoms, transmission, laboratory diagnosis, treatment, control and prevention of cholera. Results: This review relates both the existing and current knowledge of V. cholerae and cholera outbreaks. Cholera is a rare disease in developed countries; but, still exists in countries in Sub Saharan Africa, Indian subcontinent, Latin and Central American countries (like Haiti). Sign and symptoms starts with an acute onset of painless rice watery diarrhea which can rapidly become voluminous. Several methods of laboratory investigation such as microscopy, culture, biochemical test, molecular testing and cholera toxins can assist in knowing epidemiology, identification of cholera strains, monitoring treatment among others. An antibiotic regimen is also recommended. In addition, adequate hydration is essential. Health education and education in environmental control are critical for the prevention of cholera. We found many papers that discussed about cholera, but we screened out mainly those that discussed about epidemiology, symptoms and transmission, laboratory diagnosis, treatment, control and prevention of cholera. Conclusions: Adequate case search, laboratory diagnosis with sufficient safe water supply, sanitation, hygiene, community engagement, leadership commitment and oral cholera vaccine are the most important mechanism for the control and prevention of cholera disease.Author(s): Abdulhadi SK, Tukur AD, Ahmed BOK, Bawa E, Ajagbe JM, Ezekiel DB, Abdulhakeem AY, Muhammad NB, Rabiu M