Commentary - Case Reports in Surgery and Invasive Procedures (2022) Volume 6, Issue 1
Clinical significance and complications in angioplasty, comparison of balloon angioplasty with directional atherectomy for lesions the treatment of coronary artery disease.
Angioplasty with or without stenting is a nonsurgical procedure used to open clogged or narrow coronary arteries due to underlying atherosclerosis. The procedure involves introducing an inflatable balloon-tipped catheter through the skin in extremities and inflating the balloon once it traverses the stenosed arterial site. It presses the intraluminal plaque of atherosclerosis against the arterial wall and widens the luminal diameter. Thereby it normalizes the blood flow to the myocardium and achieves the goal of angioplasty or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) by alleviating the chest pain. The PCI concept was introduced 40 years ago with the introduction of "plain old balloon angioplasty" (POBA) without stenting. In the mid-1980s, POBA use was limited because of an early complication of vascular recoil property and restenosis after balloon deflation which led to the invention of bare metal stents (BMS). During the procedure, professionals use a tube-like metallic meshwork, and its scaffolding properties counteract vascular recoil property, thereby avoiding the early restenosis of POBA due to vascular recoil. However, long-term, in situ BMS, can induce wall stress, endothelial discontinuity, and permanent presence of the metallic foreign body in arteries leading to inflammation with fibrin deposition and promoting myofibroblast migration which gives rise to in-stent restenosis (IRS) due to a mechanism of neointimal hyperplasia.Author(s): Johnson Maryam*