Research Article - Current Pediatric Research (2021) Volume 25, Issue 9
Association between maternal nutrition and fetal developmental profile: Do leptin and adiponectin have a significant role?.
Background: Leptin and adiponectin, which are primarily produced by adipose tissue, have recently been identified as key mediators in the foetal developmental process. Modulation of these adipokines in early life, therefore, provides potential opportunities to improve or reverse the adverse complications associated with an abnormal foetal developmental profile. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of maternal dietary habits on foetal leptin and adiponectin levels on foetal developmental outcomes. Subjects and Methods: Sixty-two mothers between the ages of 18 years and 38 years, as well as their full-term neonates, were enrolled in this study, whether they had a normal delivery or a Cesarean section, with no birth complications. All mothers were subjected to a full pregnancy history in order to determine their gestational age, as well as a full examination that included measuring and recording all of their anthropometric measurements. Clinical examinations were performed on newborns, and the Apgar score was also recorded. Newborns were classified as Small for Gestational Age (SGA), Appropriate for Gestational Age (AGA), or Large for Gestational Age (LGA) based on their birth weight (LGA). ELIZA measured leptin and adiponectin levels in both mother's serum and cord blood serum. Results: Mothers who consumed fish and fats during pregnancy were not at risk of having SGA babies, and SGA babies had significantly lower adiponectin levels than AGA and LGA babies. Leptin levels increased significantly as they passed from SGA to LGA. Leptin distribution was significantly higher in infants of mothers who consumed daily breakfast during pregnancy than in infants of mothers who did not consume breakfast. Infant adiponectin distribution was significantly higher in infants of mothers who ate regular fats than in infants of mothers who ate a low fat diet. Infant adiponectin distribution was significantly higher in infants of mothers who consumed sugary drinks once per day than in infants of mothers who did not consume sugary drinks. Furthermore, there is a significant positive correlation between infant weight, infant length, infant head circumference, infant mid-arm circumference, and levels of both infant leptin and infant adiponectin. A highly significant negative correlation was found between mother adiponectin and infant leptin levels, while a highly significant positive correlation was found between mother leptin and infant leptin levels. Conclusion: This study shed light on the important role of maternal nutrition during pregnancy in foetal body fat composition. This study also provides clear evidence for the influence of leptin and adiponectin on foetal development.Author(s): Enas R Abdelhamid*, Alyaa H Kamhawy, Manal A Gad, Mones M Abu Shady, Walaa H Ali,Hala A Youssef, Hanaa H Ahmed