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Prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in school going children aged between 5-12 years in Bengaluru.

Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood psychiatric disorders that affect 2% to 14% of school age children. It is characterized by age inappropriate level of inattention with or without motor over activity and impulsivity in academic and social spheres. Boys are more affected than girls and male female ratio is 4:1. Although ADHD is the most common condition, the evidence from Indian studies is very less. Many studies are required in India to see the magnitude of ADHD. Evaluation of the prevalence of this condition in our country will help clinicians to consider the diagnosis of ADHD and related disorders. This study aims to determine the prevalence of ADHD among school going children (5 years to 12years) and to know the difference between government and private schools as well as to determine male to female ratio in Bengaluru. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study done in Bengaluru city by convenience sampling method. A total 18 schools comprising of both private and government were selected. 3120 Children aged between 5-12years studying in these schools were included in the study. Introduction about ADHD was given by Paediatrician to the teachers followed by screening for ADHD was done by teachers using Conner’s teachers rating scale for all children. Positive cases in these were screened with Parents and Paediatrician by using Conner’s parent rating scale. Children who were positive in Parents and Paediatrician rating scale were interviewed by the Psychiatrist at KIMS Hospital and ADHD was diagnosed by using DSM V criteria along with IQ assessment and treatment was started for the needy. Results: The prevalence of ADHD in our study was 1.3%. Male to female ratio was 1.6:1. Among the positive cases, children belonging to Hyperactivity type were 34.1%, inattention was 9.8% and combined type was 56.1%. Prevalence in private school was 1.25% and government school was 1.37%. Total dropouts were 2.5% who did not reach the hospital for the final diagnosis. Conclusion: ADHD is prevalent worldwide and it is also one of the emerging disorders in our country. It constitutes a significant mental health disorder in children and 50% of this disorder will be carried to adulthood. In our study we had prevalence of 1.3% ADHD and 2.5% dropouts due to lack of awareness of this disorder, their work pressure, distance, social and financial constricts. It is high time to identify the disorder and creating wide spread awareness about ADHD by the Paediatrician’s among the Teachers, Parents and Primary care Physicians, in order to prevent the social and academic impact of the disorder. By introducing an ADHD standard screening methods in all schools along with the regular health check-ups will bring awareness in the society for the healthy future of the children. Lastly every school should have a counsellor to overcome ADHD and other related problems.

Author(s): Ramya HS, Goutham AS, Lakshmi V Pandit