In this study, an animal (Wistar rat) model of PM2.5 associated with chronic pulmonary infection in vivo was established and the effects of PM2.5 and its relationship with cytokines were investigated. A total of 60 adults Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group (group A), group fumigated with PM2.5 (group B), with 30 rats in each group. Then the lung function of rats, the cell count and differential count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were detected. The levels of cytokines (IL-8, IL-1β, SICAM-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in sera were measured with ELISA methods. The total number of cells in BALF of the fumigated group was significantly higher than in the control group after inhalation of PM2.5. Among the cells, the lymphocytes of the fumigated group were significantly higher than the control group on the 1st and 3rd day, but no significant difference was observed on the 7th day. After inhalation of PM2.5, the concentrations of serum cytokines IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α of the fumigated group and the control group were all lower than the limits of the ELISA kit. There was no significant difference between the concentrations of serum cytokines IL-8 and TNF-α in the fumigated and the control groups. However, the IL-1β concentration in the serum of the fumigated group was significantly higher than in the control group. The results indicated that when rats were inhaled with PM2.5, the components in PM2.5 as an antigen substance mediated the antibody reaction of antigen, which might cause the serious airway inflammatory response and lung tissue injury, this effect may be related to IL-8.