This study was performed to assess the relationship between socioeconomic position, according to parental education and participants’ own education, and periodontitis in a large probability sample of the Korean population using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess the associations of periodontitis and the socioeconomic position with adjustments with confounding factors. In male participants aged 19-39 and 40-64 the prevalence of periodontitis increased with fewer educational years. Paternal education showed significant impacts on males aged 19-39 and 40-64. In females, the presence of periodontitis was influenced by participants’ own education in those participants aged 19-39 and 40-64. In females aged 19-39 and 40-64, the maternal education and paternal education had an association with the presence of periodontitis. Parental education combined with individuals’ own education was associated with the prevalence of periodontitis after adjustment. This study evaluated the combined socioeconomic position using parental education and participants’ own education. This study showed that higher socioeconomic position during childhood and greater educational attainment was both associated with decreased periodontitis in adulthood.