Aim: Estrogen Receptors (ER) and Progesterone Receptors (PR) are known to play a role in breast cancer as both predictive and prognostic markers. However, the influence of Androgen Receptors (AR), a member of the steroid receptor family, remains controversial. In this study, we aimed to determine the relationship between Androgen Receptors (AR) expression and the prognostic factors of breast cancer.
Materials and Methods: Pathologic specimens of 100 breast cancer patients were stained with an Androgen Receptors (AR) immunohistochemical stain, and the nuclear staining was positive. The intensity and distribution scores of the stainings were summed, and then the total score was calculated. A total score from 0-1 was accepted as negative, while an overall score of 2 and above was positive. The obtained data were evaluated with Chi-square and descriptive statistical methods. A survival analysis was carried out using a Kaplan-Meier test.
Findings: The median age of patients was 53 years (range: 17-92 years). Androgen Receptor (AR) positivity was present in 66 (66%) of participants. There were statistically significant relationships between Androgen Receptor (AR) positivity and tumour type (p=0.012), grade (p<0.001), Estrogen Receptor (ER) positivity (p<0.001), Progesterone Receptor positivity (p=0.002), triple negativity of breast cancer (p=0.001), the Ki-67 Index (p=0.007), and the recurrence rate (p=0.043). There were no statistically significant associations between Androgen Receptor positivity and menopausal status, stage, tumour diameter, lymph node involvement, multicentricity, lymphovascular invasion, human epidermal growth factor positivity, or distant metastasis (p>0.05).
Conclusion: Androgen receptor may be a good prognostic factor because of its association with lowgrade breast cancer), estrogen receptor positivity, progesterone receptor positivity, and low Ki-67 Index values. However, this finding will need to be confirmed by large cohort studies.