Journal of Food Nutrition and Health

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Research Article - Journal of Food Nutrition and Health (2019) Volume 2, Issue 1

Epidemiology of salmonella and its serotypes in human, food animals, foods of animal origin, animal feed and environment.

The present review was undertaken to determine the epidemiology of Salmonella serotypes from food animals, food of animal origin, environment, animal feed, water and humans. For this a number of sensitive phenotypic and genotypic detection methods for Salmonella were reviewed. In general, a total of 34,051 samples for quantitative analysis were analyzed. The review result revealed overall 5,738 (16.9%) samples were positive for Salmonella. Of these, 194 serotypes; and 7 Salmonella Enteritidis and 18 Typhimurium phage types were isolated. With regard to examined sample types, of 7027 Poultry, 1888 (26.9%), of 1895 poultry and poultry products, 499 (26.3%), of 170 poultry environment, 100 (58.8%), of 268 chicken meat, 115 (42.9%), of 600 turkey flesh, 62 (10.3%), Of 7744 pig, 1369 (17.7%), of 318 pork meat, 126 (39.6%), of 1923 swine and swine farm environment, 151 (7.9%), of 4709 cattle, 435 (9.2%), of 947 beef, 172 (18.2%), of 50 calf, 35 (70.0%), of 1132 human, 128 (11.3%), of 1536 camel, 238 (15.5%), of 2839 sheep and goat, 56 (2.0%), of 292 mutton, 39 (13.4%), of 200 water, 37 (18.5%), of 2058 animal feeds, 257 (12.5%), of 190 cottage cheese, 4 (2.1%), of 25 Hedgehog, 24 (96.0%) and of 128 fish meat, 3 (2.3%) were infected with Salmonella. These revealed the comparative differential contamination rate among hosts and samples. Salmonella Typhimurium (16.0%), Enteritidis (12.8%) and Derby (9.9%) are dominant serotypes. Large scale production of minimally processed and ready to eat products, trading live infected animals or pets, antimicrobial growth promoters and treatment, unhygienic carcasses evisceration and storage of manure inside of the farm were associated risk factors. In conclusion, Salmonella is widely distributed with diverse hosts, serotype and environmental niche. Therefore, early detection of Salmonella relevant for investigating source of infection and implementing prevention and control measures

Author(s): Fisseha Mengstie Tegegne

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