This study aimed to investigate the curative effect of anteroposterior integration fixation with a selfdesigned posterolateral screw-rod on thoracolumbar disease in clinical practice. A total of 12 patients with thoracolumbar disease, who received treatment between December 2009 and May 2010, were retrospectively analyzed. Among the patients, eight were men and four were women. Their ages ranged from 23 to 62 years (average age, 36.4 years). They received pedicle and vertebral internal fixation posterolateral to the vertebral column by using the screw-rod system. Local pain amelioration, kyphotic Cobb angle correction, and neural functional recovery were observed for the evaluation of curative effect. All the patients were followed with an average time of 7.8 months (range, 6-10 months). Local pain ameliorated in all patients, and their kyphoses and neural functions recovered to different degrees. No surgery-related complications occurred. Thoracolumbar posterolateral screw-rod anteroposterior integration fixation might produce a satisfactory curative effect on thoracolumbar disease.