Review Paper - Journal of Bacteriology and Infectious Diseases (2018) Volume 2, Issue 1
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever a threat to public health.
Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever is a tick borne zoonotic infection caused by the arbo-virus, which is a member of the genus Nairovirus (family Bunyaviridae) and is characterized by a sudden onset of high fever, chills, severe headache, dizziness, malaise, abdominal and back pains also in some cases diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, muscle aches, sore throat and thrombocytopenia. In severe cases, hemorrhagic expressions, grading from petechiae to huge areas of ecchymosis, may also raise. Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a challenge for the people of endemic rural regions, and for veterinary and health care personnel, and shows a significant mortality. The disease is broadly distributed in Africa, Asia and Europe, and has become a serious threat to public health. Several genera of ixodid ticks contribute both as reservoir and vector for CCHFV; on the other hand, Hyalomma genus of ticks are mainly essential to the bionomics of this virus. Thus, contact to these ticks acts a main threat for catching disease; though, additional main risk factors are identified and are discoursed in this article. In modern era, main progresses in the molecular recognition of CCHF-virus, mainly the usage of real-time PCR, in clinics and fields for tick samples have been allowed for quick diagnosis of infection and molecular epidemiological research. CCHF have limited treatment choices. During sporadic outbreaks of disease Ribavirin and Immuno-therapy have been attempted with unreliable degrees of achievement, however restricted epidemiological field trials has been carried. Therefore, currently no anti-viral treatment approved by the U.S Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of CCHF. But, changed concerned in CCHFV, besides better understanding of its fundamental biology, might possibly contribute to enhanced therapies in the coming future. This review article mainly discussed about the introduction, etiology, epidemiology, history, clinical characteristics, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment of CCHF and its potential risk for bioterrorism and a threat to public health.Author(s): Munibullah*, Arfan Yousaf, Muhammad Ali Shah, Habibullah, Halima Sadia, Mujeeb ur Rehman Sohoo