This study aims to compare 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), adiponectin (ADPN) and apolipoprotein A5 (apoA5) levels among subjects with different glucose tolerance and to explore their correlation with lipid metabolism. Subjects were divided into 98 cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM group), 87 cases of impaired glucose regulation (IGR group) and 100 cases of normal glucose tolerance (NGT group). 25(OH)D3, adiponectin (ADPN), apolipoprotein A5 (apoA5), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and blood lipid were estimated and analyzed. It was found that the levels of 25(OH)D3, ADPN, apoA5 and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in T2DM and IGR groups were lower than that of NGT group, while HbA1c, total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG) and LDL-C levels were higher than that of NGT group (P<0.05). Levels of 25(OH)D3, ADPN, apoA5 and HDL-C in T2DM group were lower than that of IGR group. However, HbA1c, TC, TG and LDL-C levels were higher than that of IGR group (P<0.05). Therefore, low plasma levels of 25(OH)D3, ADPN and apoA5 may possibly be the risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance, thus the regulation of 25(OH)D3, ADPN, and apoA5 concentrations could be important in the prevention of dyslipidemia and T2DM.