Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Allied Science

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Commentary - Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Allied Science (2023) Volume 7, Issue 1

Water pollution affect on animals its vulnerability to diseases.

Emily Jones*

Department of Parasitology, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy

Corresponding Author:
Emily Jones
Department of Parasitology
University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy

Received: 30-Dec-2022, Manuscript No. AAVMAS-23-86378; Editor assigned: 02-Jan-2023, PreQC No. AAVMAS-23-86378(PQ); Reviewed: 16-Jan-2023, QC No. AAVMAS-23-86378; Revised: 19-Jan-2023, Manuscript No. AAVMAS-23-86378(R); Published: 26-Jan-2023, DOI:10.35841/2591-7978-7.1.133

Citation: Jones E. Water pollution affect on animals its vulnerability to diseases. J Vet Med Allied Sci. 2023;7(1):133

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Sewage can promote algae growth, leading to eutrophic dead zones where aquatic life cannot survive due to a lack of oxygen. Polluting chemicals, such as sewage, are dumped into the oceans, killing off animals that rely on the ocean for survival, such as crabs and fish. This is because the animals could be infected with diseases from sewage or harmed by trash dumped in the ocean. Water pollution has the greatest impact on various species of fish. Fish and other aquatic organisms begin to die as a result of a lack of oxygen in polluted water. Because hydrocarbons in oil spread on the ocean's surface, marine and aquatic organisms are deprived of oxygen and die as a result. Many aquatic species are on the verge of extinction as a result of the current situation.

When nutrients wash into waterways as a result of storm runoff, they deplete the oxygen levels in the water, which fish require to survive. Nitrogen and phosphorus are commonly found in streams and lakes as a result of fertilisers, dog waste, and other sources [1]. These nutrients accumulate in the water over time, promoting algae and water plant growth, and as they decay, they reduce oxygen levels in the water. Algal blooms can be harmful to fish because when they feed on algae, toxins accumulate within the fish, and when a predator fish consumes that fish, they consume higher toxin levels as well. Pesticides and heavy metals can also harm or kill fish when they enter waterways [2]. Even small amounts of synthetic pesticides used for weed and bug control are toxic. Heavy metals released into the atmosphere by the combustion of fossil fuels eventually find their way into bodies of water. Heavy metal exposure can impair a fish's ability to smell, interfering with its ability to locate food and protect itself from predatory animals and fish. Polluted water also has a negative impact on aquatic life's ability to reproduce. It impairs the ability of fish and plants to regenerate and reproduce. Animals are also susceptible to a variety of diseases as a result of drinking polluted water.

The spread of toxic algae species has an impact on both wildlife and human health. Because of nutrient pollution in the water, these algae produce toxins that poison aquatic organisms such as seabirds, fish, sea turtles, and aquatic mammals such as dolphins, manatees, and sea lions [3]. Drinking water is derived from both surface water and groundwater. Pollution from these sources degrades the quality and safety of the water in your home, and if the problem is not detected, it can harm your health. Human and animal waste, mining activities, fertiliser and pesticides from homes and farms, industrial wastes, hazardous wastes generated by dry cleaners and gas stations, landfills, and improperly disposed-of household wastes all contribute to drinking water pollution [4].

Nitrogen and phosphorus are nutrients that enter rivers, lakes, and oceans as water pollutants through runoff, such as rain washing excess fertiliser from a lawn into a lake or a direct discharge when a sewage treatment plant pumps processed sewage into a river [5]. Excess nutrients in a body of water cause plants and algae to grow at an accelerated rate, resulting in plant overgrowth and harmful algal blooms. When plants die, the decay process reduces the dissolved oxygen level in the water to levels that fish cannot tolerate, resulting in fish kills. When a fish consumes harmful algae, toxins accumulate in its body and are passed on to other fish that consume them. Synthetic pesticides, such as weed and bug killers, are toxic to fish at low concentrations, causing fish mortality and population decline. Some fish are more sensitive than others and will perish even at lower concentrations [6]. Fish consume invertebrates found in the water. When this food source is removed, they either die of starvation or migrate to a new habitat. Waterborne insects are among these invertebrates; pesticides are toxic to them even at low concentrations. If the pesticide does not kill the insect, it is transferred when the insect is eaten by a fish.


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