Gynecology and Reproductive Endocrinology

All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.
Reach Us +1 (629)348-3199

Perspective - Gynecology and Reproductive Endocrinology (2024) Volume 8, Issue 1

Unveiling the silent struggles: understanding reproductive system diseases

Zoca Mavrogianni *

Department of Medicine, University of Thessaly, Karditsa, Greece

*Corresponding Author:
Zoca Mavrogianni
Department of Medicine
University of Thessaly
Karditsa, Greece

Received: 25-Dec-2023, Manuscript No. AAGGS-24-135574; Editor assigned: 28-Dec-2023, PreQC No. AAGGS-24-135574(PQ); Reviewed:11-Jan-2024, QC No. AAGGS-24-135574; Revised:16-Jan-2024, Manuscript No. AAGGS-24-135574(R); Published: 22-Jan-2024, DOI: 10.35841/2591-7994-8.1.185

Citation: Mavrogianni Z. Unveiling The Silent Struggles: Understanding Reproductive System Diseases. 2024;8(1):185/p>

Visit for more related articles at Gynecology and Reproductive Endocrinology


<li>Fauser BC, Devroey P, Macklon NS.&nbsp;<a href="">Multiple births resulting from ovarian stimulation for subfertility treatment</a>. The Lancet. 2005;365(9473):1807-16.&nbsp;</li>


<p style="text-align: right;"><a href="">Indexed at,</a>&nbsp;<a href=";as_sdt=0%2C5&amp;q=4.%09Fauser+BC%2C+Devroey+P%2C+Macklon+NS.+Multiple+birth+resulting+from+ovarian+stimulation+for+subfertility+treatment.+Lancet.+2005%3B365%3A1807%E2%80%9316.&amp;btnG=">Google Scholar,</a>&nbsp;<a href="">Cross Ref</a></p>

<ol start="2">

<li>Corr&ecirc;a S, Petchesky R, Parker R.&nbsp;<a href="">Sexuality, health and human rights</a>. Routledge; 2008 Aug 18.</li>


<p style="text-align: right;"><a href="">Indexed at</a>,&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href=";as_sdt=0%2C5&amp;q=1.%09Corr%C3%AAa+S%2C+Petchesky+R%2C+Parker+R%2C+editors.+Sexuality%2C+health+and+human+rights.+London%3A+Routledge%3B+2008.++&amp;btnG=">Google Scholar</a>,&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="">Cross Ref</a></p>

<ol start="3">

<li>Welt CK, Carmina E.&nbsp;<a href="">Lifecycle of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): From in utero to menopause</a>. The J Clin Endocrinol Metabol. 2013;98(12):4629-38.</li>


<p style="text-align: right;"><a href="">Indexed at</a>,&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href=";as_sdt=0%2C5&amp;q=2.%09Welt+CK%2C+Carmina+E.+Clinical+review%3A+lifecycle+of+polycystic+ovary+syndrome+%28PCOS%29%3A+from+in+utero+to+menopause.+J+Clin+Endocrinol+Metab.+2013%3B98%3A4629%E2%80%934638.+&amp;btnG=">Google Scholar</a>,&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="">Cross Ref</a></p>

<ol start="4">

<li>Addis IB, Van Den Eeden SK, Wassel-Fyr CL, et al..&nbsp;<a href="">Sexual activity and function in middle-aged and older women.</a>Obstetr and Gynecol. 2006;107(4):755.</li>


<p style="text-align: right;"><a href="">Indexed at</a>,&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href=";as_sdt=0%2C5&amp;;btnG=">Google Scholar</a>,&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="">Cross Ref</a></p>

<ol start="5">

<li>Beutel ME, Schumacher J, Weidner W, Br&auml;hler E.&nbsp;<a href="">Sexual activity, sexual and partnership satisfaction in ageing men&mdash;results from a German representative community study</a>. Andrologia. 2002;34(1):22-8.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</li>


<p style="text-align: right;"><a href="">Indexed at</a>,&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href=";as_sdt=0%2C5&amp;q=Sexual+activity%2C+sexual+and+partnership+satisfaction+in+ageing+men%E2%80%94Results+from+a+German+representative+community+study&amp;btnG=">Google Scholar</a>,&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="">Cross Ref</a></p>

<ol start="6">

<li>Braun M, Wassmer G., Klotz T, et al.&nbsp;<a href="">Epidemiology of erectile dysfunction: Results of the 'Cologne Male Survey&rsquo;</a>. Int J Impot Res. 2000; 12: 305-311.</li>


<p style="text-align: right;"><a href="">Indexed at</a>,&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href=";as_sdt=0%2C5&amp;q=5.%09Braun+M%2C+Wassmer+G.%2C+Klotz+T%2C+et+al.+Epidemiology+of+erectile+dysfunction%3A+Results+of+the+%27Cologne+Male+Survey%E2%80%99.+Int+J+Impot+Res.+2000%3B+12%3A+305-311.&amp;btnG=">Google Scholar</a>,&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="">Cross Ref</a></p>

<ol start="7">

<li>Deputy NP, Sharma AJ, Kim SY, et al.&nbsp;<a href="">Prevalence and characteristics associated with gestational weight gain adequacy</a>. Obstetr and Gynec. 2015;125(4):773.</li>


<p style="text-align: right;"><a href="">Indexed at</a>,&nbsp;<a href=";as_sdt=0%2C5&amp;q=Deputy+NP%2C+Sharma+AJ%2C+Kim+SY%2C+et+al.+Prevalence+and+characteristics+associated+with+gestational+weight+gain+adequacy.+Obstetr+and+Gynec.+2015%3B125%284%29%3A773.&amp;btnG=">Google Scholar</a>,&nbsp;<a href="">Cross Ref</a></p>

<ol start="8">

<li>Goldstein RF, Abell SK, Ranasinha S, et al. Association of gestational weight gain with maternal and infant outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2017;317(21):2207-25.</li>


<p style="text-align: right;"><a href="">Indexed at</a>,&nbsp;<a href=";as_sdt=0%2C5&amp;q=Association+of+gestational+weight+gain+with+maternal+and+infant+outcomes%3A+a+systematic+review+and+meta-analysis&amp;btnG=">Google Scholar</a>,&nbsp;<a href="">Cross Ref</a></p>

<ol start="9">

<li>Ferrari RM, Siega-Riz AM.&nbsp;<a href="">Provider advice about pregnancy weight gain and adequacy of weight gain.</a>Maternal and Child Health J. 2013;17(2):256-64</li>


<p style="text-align: right;"><a href="">Indexed at</a>,&nbsp;<a href=";as_sdt=0%2C5&amp;q=Provider+advice+about+pregnancy+weight+gain+and+adequacy+of+weight+gain&amp;btnG=">Google Scholar</a>,&nbsp;</p>

<ol start="10">

<li><u>Cross Ref</u>Stotland N, Tsoh JY, Gerbert B.&nbsp;<a href="">Prenatal weight gain: who is counseled?</a>. J Women's Health. 2012;21(6):695-701.</li>


<p style="text-align: right;"><a href="">Indexed at</a>,&nbsp;<a href=";as_sdt=0%2C5&amp;q=Prenatal+weight+gain%3A+who+is+counseled%3F.&amp;btnG=">Google Scholar</a>,&nbsp;<a href="">Cross Ref</a></p>


PCOS is a hormonal disorder affecting women of reproductive age. It's characterized by irregular menstrual periods, excess androgen levels, and polycystic ovaries.

The exact cause of PCOS is unknown, but factors include excess insulin, low-grade inflammation, and genetic predisposition.

Common symptoms include irregular periods, acne, obesity, and excessive hair growth. PCOS can also lead to infertility.

Treatment: Treatment typically involves lifestyle changes such as weight loss, medications to regulate menstrual cycles, manage symptoms like hair growth and acne, and fertility treatments if pregnancy is desired [1].

Overview: Endometriosis is a condition where tissue similar to the uterine lining grows outside the uterus, causing pain and potentially leading to infertility.

Causes: The exact cause of endometriosis is unclear, but possible factors include retrograde menstruation, embryonic cell transformation, and immune system disorders.

Symptoms: Symptoms include painful periods, pain during intercourse, pain with bowel movements or urination, excessive bleeding, and infertility.

Treatment: Treatments range from pain management (NSAIDs), hormonal therapies to reduce or eliminate menstruation, and surgical options for more severe cases [2].

Overview: ED is the inability to achieve or maintain an erection suitable for sexual intercourse. It can be a sign of underlying health conditions.

Causes: Causes can be physical (e.g., cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity), psychological (e.g., stress, anxiety, depression), or a combination of both.

Symptoms: The primary symptom is difficulty getting or keeping an erection. It may also involve reduced sexual desire.

Treatment: Treatments include lifestyle changes, counseling for psychological causes, medications like sildenafil (Viagra), and mechanical devices. In severe cases, surgical interventions may be considered [3].

Overview: PID is an infection of the female reproductive organs, often caused by sexually transmitted infections (STIs) like chlamydia and gonorrhea.

Causes: The primary cause is bacterial infection from STIs. Other causes include non-sexually transmitted bacteria introduced into the reproductive tract.

Symptoms: Symptoms can range from mild to severe and include pelvic pain, fever, abnormal vaginal discharge, painful urination, and irregular menstrual bleeding.

Treatment: PID is typically treated with antibiotics. Severe cases may require hospitalization and intravenous antibiotics. Early treatment is crucial to prevent complications like infertility [4].

Reproductive system diseases can significantly impact an individual's quality of life. Chronic pain, emotional distress, and social stigma are common. Infertility, a common consequence of many reproductive diseases, can lead to emotional and psychological stress, affecting relationships and mental health [5].

Early diagnosis is crucial for effective management of reproductive diseases. Common diagnostic approaches include:

Medical History and Physical Examination: Initial assessment often includes a detailed medical history and physical examination to identify symptoms and potential risk factors. Imaging Tests: Ultrasound, MRI, and CT scans are used to visualize internal organs and detect abnormalities. Blood Tests: Hormone levels, infection markers, and other blood parameters help in diagnosing conditions like PCOS and PID. Laparoscopy: A minimally invasive surgical procedure used to diagnose conditions like endometriosis and other pelvic disorders. [6].

Depending on the condition, medications can range from antibiotics for infections, hormone treatments for hormonal imbalances, and medications to manage symptoms like pain and erectile dysfunction.

Surgery may be necessary for conditions like severe endometriosis, large fibroids, or to correct anatomical abnormalities. Weight management, diet, exercise, and stress reduction can significantly improve symptoms and overall health [7].

Regular Screening and Check-ups: Regular gynecological and urological examinations can help detect issues early. Safe Sexual Practices: Using condoms and having regular STI screenings can prevent infections that lead to PID and other complications. Healthy Lifestyle: Maintaining a healthy weight, balanced diet, and regular exercise can prevent conditions like PCOS and ED. Education and Awareness: Increasing awareness about reproductive health, symptoms of reproductive diseases, and available treatments can empower individuals to seek timely medical help. [8].

Reproductive system diseases, though often shrouded in silence, significantly impact many lives. Understanding these conditions, recognizing the symptoms, and seeking appropriate treatment can improve health outcomes and quality of life. Open conversations about reproductive health and increased awareness are essential steps toward breaking the stigma and ensuring better health for all [9,10].


  1. Fauser BC, Devroey P, Macklon NS. Multiple births resulting from ovarian stimulation for subfertility treatment. The Lancet. 2005;365(9473):1807-16. 

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  1. Corrêa S, Petchesky R, Parker R. Sexuality, health and human rights. Routledge; 2008 Aug 18.

Indexed at,   Google Scholar,   Cross Ref

  1. Welt CK, Carmina E. Lifecycle of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): From in utero to menopause. The J Clin Endocrinol Metabol. 2013;98(12):4629-38.

Indexed at,   Google Scholar,   Cross Ref

  1. Addis IB, Van Den Eeden SK, Wassel-Fyr CL, et al.. Sexual activity and function in middle-aged and older women.Obstetr and Gynecol. 2006;107(4):755.

Indexed at,   Google Scholar,   Cross Ref

  1. Beutel ME, Schumacher J, Weidner W, Brähler E. Sexual activity, sexual and partnership satisfaction in ageing men—results from a German representative community study. Andrologia. 2002;34(1):22-8.    

Indexed at,   Google Scholar,   Cross Ref

  1. Braun M, Wassmer G., Klotz T, et al. Epidemiology of erectile dysfunction: Results of the 'Cologne Male Survey’. Int J Impot Res. 2000; 12: 305-311.

Indexed at,   Google Scholar,   Cross Ref

  1. Deputy NP, Sharma AJ, Kim SY, et al. Prevalence and characteristics associated with gestational weight gain adequacy. Obstetr and Gynec. 2015;125(4):773.

Indexed atGoogle ScholarCross Ref

  1. Goldstein RF, Abell SK, Ranasinha S, et al. Association of gestational weight gain with maternal and infant outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2017;317(21):2207-25.

Indexed atGoogle ScholarCross Ref

  1. Ferrari RM, Siega-Riz AM. Provider advice about pregnancy weight gain and adequacy of weight gain.Maternal and Child Health J. 2013;17(2):256-64

Indexed atGoogle Scholar

  1. Cross RefStotland N, Tsoh JY, Gerbert B. Prenatal weight gain: who is counseled?. J Women's Health. 2012;21(6):695-701.

Indexed atGoogle ScholarCross Ref

Get the App