Ophthalmology Case Reports

All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.
Reach Us +1 (629)348-3199

Commentary - Ophthalmology Case Reports (2023) Volume 7, Issue 3

Understanding Acanthamoeba keratitis: Causes, symptoms, and treatment options

Xizhan Cao*

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Beijing, Beijing, China

*Corresponding Author:
Xizhan Cao
Department of Ophthalmology
University of Beijing, Beijing, China
E-mail: caoxiz@ccmu.edu.cn

Received: 09-May-2023, Manuscript No. OER-23-105888; Editor assigned: 11-May-2023, Pre QC No. OER-23-105888(PQ); Reviewed: 25-May-2023, QC No. OER-23-105888; Revised: 26-May-2023, Manuscript No. OER-23-105888(R); Published: 02-Jun-2023, DOI: 10.35841/2591-7846-7.3.152

Citation: Cao X. Understanding Acanthamoeba keratitis: Causes, symptoms and treatment options. Ophthalmol Case Rep. 2023;7(3):152

Visit for more related articles at Ophthalmology Case Reports

Introduction

The sore is frequently mistaken for contagious, bacterial, or herpetic keratitis. Fruitful treatment depends on early acknowledgment and forceful treatment with fitting skin antiamebic drugs, frequently related to entering keratoplasty. The pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba keratitis includes parasite-intervened cytolysis and phagocytosis of corneal epithelial cells and acceptance of customized cell demise. Acanthamoeba spp elaborates various proteases that might work with cytolysis of the corneal epithelium, attack of the extracellular framework and disintegration of the corneal stromal network.

The conclusion of AK starts from the patient's set of experiences, the patient's show and clinical doubt. Side effects habitually found in AK incorporate serious visual torment, related tearing, redness, photophobia and diminished vision. Cytological staining utilizing Giemsa or calcofluor white after corneal scratching, In Vivo Confocal Microscopy (IVCM), a culture of corneal scrapings, Polymerase Chain Response (PCR) and histology of corneal biopsies can all assist with validating clinical premonitions. Acanthamoeba spp. sores show up as round or oval exceptionally refractile designs with a polygonal inward wall. The supporting treatment of PHMB and propamidine, every 3-4 times each day, is then gone on for 4 a month and a half. Both biguanides and diamidines can be poisonous to the cornea, frequently causing corneal epitheliopathy. In instances of poisonousness, a lessening in the measurements or considering a drug occasion might be required [1].

Acanthamoeba keratitis is an uncommon corneal disease that is as of late expanding in recurrence and is frequently shrunk by contact focal point wearers, somebody who experienced ongoing eye injury, or somebody presented to sullied waters. Acanthamoeba makes due in air, soil, residue and water. In this way, eye injury and unfortunate contact focal point cleanliness rehearse lead to the ensnarement of garbage and hence disease. The interaction goes on with Acanthamoeba trophozoites separating the epithelial obstruction by instruments of direct cytolysis, phagocytosis and acceptance of apoptosis. Following the grip and breakdown of the corneal epithelium, trophozoites attack the basic collagenous stroma. The course of stromal intrusion is interceded by various results of the single adaptable cell, including metalloproteinases and serine proteinases. These proteinases work to deliver a powerful cytopathic result that kills have cells and corrupts the epithelial storm cellar film as well as the stromal network to advance into more profound layers of the cornea. Stromal contribution is ordinarily observed [2].

Biguanides are helpful antimicrobial specialists since they can kill the two types of Acanthamoeba, trophozoites and blisters. Sweet-smelling diamidines, for example, propamidine and hexamidine are much of the time used to treat AK in the mix with biguanides to forestall drug protection from diamidines. Neomycin can kill the trophozoite type of Acanthamoeba however doesn't have a high cytocidal action like other recently referenced drugs [3]. To minimize the risk of Acanthamoeba keratitis, contact lens wearers should strictly adhere to their eye care professional's instructions regarding lens cleaning, storage, and replacement. Avoiding the use of tap water to clean lenses or store them, as well as removing lenses before swimming or using hot tubs, can significantly reduce the chances of infection [4].

Acanthamoeba keratitis brings about extreme eye agony, irritation and imperfections of the epithelium and stroma that might possibly bring about vision misfortune on the off chance that not analyzed early and treated immediately. The illness can be analyzed utilizing corneal scratch/biopsy, polymerase chain responses, impression cytology, or in vivo confocal microscopy. High-level phases of the sickness bring about vision misfortune and the requirement for corneal transfers. Staying away from the gamble factors and diagnosing the illness early are the best ways of combatting Acanthamoeba keratitis [5].

Conclusion

Acanthamoeba keratitis is a rare but potentially devastating eye infection that demands early detection and appropriate treatment. Practicing proper contact lens hygiene and taking precautionary measures around water sources can go a long way in safeguarding one's eyes from this challenging infection. Timely intervention remains vital in preserving vision and reducing the long-term impact of this sight-threatening condition.

References

  1. Auran JD, Starr MB, Jakobiec FA. Acanthamoeba keratitis. Cornea. 1987;6(1):2-6.
  2. Indexed at, Google Scholar

  3. Clarke B, Sinha A, Parmar DN, et al. Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis. J. Ophthalmol.2012;2012.
  4. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  5. Clarke DW, Niederkorn JY. The pathophysiology of Acanthamoeba keratitis. Trends Parasitol.2006;22(4):175-80.
  6. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  7. Kilvington S, Gray T, Dart J, et al. Acanthamoeba keratitis: the role of domestic tap water contamination in the United Kingdom. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004;45(1):165-9.
  8. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  9. Varacalli G, Di Zazzo A, Mori T, et al. Challenges in Acanthamoeba keratitis: a review. J Clin Med.2021;10(5):942.
  10. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Get the App