Journal of Fisheries Research

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Short Communication - Journal of Fisheries Research (2022) Volume 6, Issue 6

Two new records of Nudibranch Kalinga ornata (Alder and Hancock,1864 ) and Hexabranchus sanguineus (R

Raheem PK*, Jasmine S, Anil MK, Ambarish PG, Gomathi P, Surya S, Raju B

Vizhinjam Research Centre of ICAR-Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Vizhinjam Thiruvananthapuram-695521,Kerala, India

*Corresponding Author:
Mbamalu ON
Vizhinjam Research Centre of ICAR-Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute
Vizhinjam Thiruvananthapuram-695521,Kerala, India

Received: 15-Sep-2022, Manuscript No. AAJFR-22-74767; Editor assigned: 19-Sep-2022, PreQC No. AAJFR-22-74767(PQ); Reviewed: 03-Oct-2022, QC No. AAJFR-22-74767; Revised: 25-Oct-2022, Manuscript No. AAJFR-22-74767(R); Published: 01-Nov-2022, DOI:10.35841/aajfr-6.6.126

Citation: Raheem PK, Jasmine S, Anil MK, et al. Two new records of Nudibranch Kalinga ornata (Alder and Hancock, 1864) and Hexabranchus Sanguineus (Ruppell & Leuckart, 1828) from the vizhinjam coast of Kerala, India. J Fish Res. 2022;6(6):126

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This paper records the first report of the Sea slug Kalinga ornata (Alder and Hancock, 1864) and Hexabranchus Sanguineus (Ruppell & Leuckart, 1828) for the first time from the Vizhinjam coast of kerala, India.

Nudibranchs (Order Nudibranchia) are gastropod molluscs that form the major part of the sea slug belonging to the Opisthobranchia [1]. There are about 3000 described species of opisthobranches from all over the world and 40 % from these have been found exclusively from Indo - Pacific region [2]. Nudibranchs can be found in all the world’s oceans, and in most marine habitats, and they vary in size from 4 mm to 60 cm [3]. Due to loss of adult shell, they have evolved various anti-predator strategies, like chemical defense, use of nematocysts obtained from cnidarian prey, warning or aposematic coloration, camouflage and mimicry [4-9]. Because of the presence of biochemically active compounds, dietary or biosynthetic, nudibranchs have gained increasing interest in natural products research [10,11].

Earlier studies on the opisthobranches of Kerala coast have been reported [10-16]. This paper document the two new records of opisthobranches from vizhinjam coast of Kerala, India [17-21].

Materials and Methods

This two nudibranches were caught among the by catch in motorized fishing crafts operated along the vizhinjam coast of Kerala, India. The collected specimens were brought in to vizhinjam research centre of CMFRI and were photo documented live. The collected specimens were preserved in 70 % ethyl alcohol and deposited in CMFRI museum collections. Cross examination of the specimen was done by Garry cobb, Australia.

Taxonomic Notes

Infra-class: Opisthobranchia

Order: Nudibranchia

Superfamily: Anadoridoidea

Family: Polyceridae

Genus: Kalinga

Kalinga Ornate (Figure 1)


Figure 1: Kalinga ornata (Alder and Hancock, 1864).


These species is large with a broad oral veil with elongate velar tentacles . Body translucent white with numerous rounded tubercles and bright red pigmented areas. Oral veil with knobby tentacles. Dorsal surface with reticulate pattern of dark grey lines. Outer branches of gills with red pigment. Large papillae on dorsal surface of body and foot bright red. Many unpigmented papillae on body and dorsal surface of foot. The foot is broad, oval, flat and muscular. Rhinophore sheaths with red and yellow marginal knobs. Rhinophores yellowish with basal red band. The Rhinophores are lamellate with stout and a short pedicle. Anal spout red. Genital aperture shortly behind oral veil, close to dorsal margin. The total length and weight of the specimen were 124.32 mm and 44.32 g respectively. It is the only species belongs to the genus Kalinga and only type species of sub-family Kalinginae. These species is nocturnal, reaching sizes of atleast 130 mm, and found from shallow to deeper water (at least 182 m), prefers sandy or silty substrate.


Kalinga Ornata has been known for a long time. It was originally described by Alder and Hancock from the coromandel coast, India [22]. These species is widespread in the Indo - West pacific [2,23]. Previously in India this species was reported from Gulf of Mannar [24-26]. Lakshadweep Islands, Chennai and West Bengal [27-31]. It has been shown to feed on brittle stars, a completely unique diet for a nudibranch [32]. This is the first report of Kalinga ornata from the Kerala coast of India.

Taxonomic Notes

Infra-class : Opisthobranchia

Order : Nudibranchia

Superfamily : Polyceroidea

Family : Hexabranchidae

Genus : Hexabranchus

Hexabranchus Sanguineus (Figure 2)


Figure 2: Hexabranchus Sanguineus (RUPPELL & LEUCKART, 1828).


Hexabranchus Sanguineus commonly called as ‘Spanish Dancer’, is one of the largest Nudibranch growing up to 55 cm [33,34]. It has a deep red colour with white markings just inside the mantle edges. The Rhinophores are deep red and the gills are paler with white axes. These gill has the same colour as the dorsum, with the rachises of the branchial leaves. The dorsum is smooth. Branchial leaves are non-retractile. The anal papillae is prominent, situated in the centre of the branchial circle of leaves . The Rhinophores are elongate, ventrally there are two large, flattened and lobate oral tentacles. The anterior border of the foot is simple, lacking a notch and groove. The total length of the specimens were 129.43 mm.


The Spanish dancer is widespread throughout the tropical Indo-Pacific , from East Africa and the Red Sea to Hawaii [35]. According to Winck worth, the original description of Hexabranchus Sanguineus and some other species of nudibranchs was most likely published in 1830 [36,37]. Previously in India this species was reported from Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Lakshadweep Archipelago. This is the first report of Hexabranchus Sanguineus from the Kerala coast of India [38-41].


The author are grateful to the Scientist in - charge, VRC of CMFRI for the support and encouragement. We also thank Mr. Garry Cobb, Australia for providing necessary information and help in the identification of specimens.


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