Short Communication - Journal of Fisheries Research (2022) Volume 6, Issue 6
Two new records of Nudibranch Kalinga ornata (Alder and Hancock,1864 ) and Hexabranchus sanguineus (RRaheem PK*, Jasmine S, Anil MK, Ambarish PG, Gomathi P, Surya S, Raju B
Vizhinjam Research Centre of ICAR-Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Vizhinjam Thiruvananthapuram-695521,Kerala, India
- *Corresponding Author:
- Mbamalu ON
Vizhinjam Research Centre of ICAR-Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute
Vizhinjam Thiruvananthapuram-695521,Kerala, India
E-mail: [email protected]
Received: 15-Sep-2022, Manuscript No. AAJFR-22-74767; Editor assigned: 19-Sep-2022, PreQC No. AAJFR-22-74767(PQ); Reviewed: 03-Oct-2022, QC No. AAJFR-22-74767; Revised: 25-Oct-2022, Manuscript No. AAJFR-22-74767(R); Published: 01-Nov-2022, DOI:10.35841/aajfr-6.6.126
Citation: Raheem PK, Jasmine S, Anil MK, et al. Two new records of Nudibranch Kalinga ornata (Alder and Hancock, 1864) and Hexabranchus Sanguineus (Ruppell & Leuckart, 1828) from the vizhinjam coast of Kerala, India. J Fish Res. 2022;6(6):126
This paper records the first report of the Sea slug Kalinga ornata (Alder and Hancock, 1864) and Hexabranchus Sanguineus (Ruppell & Leuckart, 1828) for the first time from the Vizhinjam coast of kerala, India.
Nudibranchs (Order Nudibranchia) are gastropod molluscs that form the major part of the sea slug belonging to the Opisthobranchia . There are about 3000 described species of opisthobranches from all over the world and 40 % from these have been found exclusively from Indo - Pacific region . Nudibranchs can be found in all the world’s oceans, and in most marine habitats, and they vary in size from 4 mm to 60 cm . Due to loss of adult shell, they have evolved various anti-predator strategies, like chemical defense, use of nematocysts obtained from cnidarian prey, warning or aposematic coloration, camouflage and mimicry [4-9]. Because of the presence of biochemically active compounds, dietary or biosynthetic, nudibranchs have gained increasing interest in natural products research [10,11].
Materials and Methods
This two nudibranches were caught among the by catch in motorized fishing crafts operated along the vizhinjam coast of Kerala, India. The collected specimens were brought in to vizhinjam research centre of CMFRI and were photo documented live. The collected specimens were preserved in 70 % ethyl alcohol and deposited in CMFRI museum collections. Cross examination of the specimen was done by Garry cobb, Australia.
Kalinga Ornate (Figure 1)
These species is large with a broad oral veil with elongate velar tentacles . Body translucent white with numerous rounded tubercles and bright red pigmented areas. Oral veil with knobby tentacles. Dorsal surface with reticulate pattern of dark grey lines. Outer branches of gills with red pigment. Large papillae on dorsal surface of body and foot bright red. Many unpigmented papillae on body and dorsal surface of foot. The foot is broad, oval, flat and muscular. Rhinophore sheaths with red and yellow marginal knobs. Rhinophores yellowish with basal red band. The Rhinophores are lamellate with stout and a short pedicle. Anal spout red. Genital aperture shortly behind oral veil, close to dorsal margin. The total length and weight of the specimen were 124.32 mm and 44.32 g respectively. It is the only species belongs to the genus Kalinga and only type species of sub-family Kalinginae. These species is nocturnal, reaching sizes of atleast 130 mm, and found from shallow to deeper water (at least 182 m), prefers sandy or silty substrate.
Kalinga Ornata has been known for a long time. It was originally described by Alder and Hancock from the coromandel coast, India . These species is widespread in the Indo - West pacific [2,23]. Previously in India this species was reported from Gulf of Mannar [24-26]. Lakshadweep Islands, Chennai and West Bengal [27-31]. It has been shown to feed on brittle stars, a completely unique diet for a nudibranch . This is the first report of Kalinga ornata from the Kerala coast of India.
Infra-class : Opisthobranchia
Order : Nudibranchia
Superfamily : Polyceroidea
Family : Hexabranchidae
Genus : Hexabranchus
Hexabranchus Sanguineus (Figure 2)
Hexabranchus Sanguineus commonly called as ‘Spanish Dancer’, is one of the largest Nudibranch growing up to 55 cm [33,34]. It has a deep red colour with white markings just inside the mantle edges. The Rhinophores are deep red and the gills are paler with white axes. These gill has the same colour as the dorsum, with the rachises of the branchial leaves. The dorsum is smooth. Branchial leaves are non-retractile. The anal papillae is prominent, situated in the centre of the branchial circle of leaves . The Rhinophores are elongate, ventrally there are two large, flattened and lobate oral tentacles. The anterior border of the foot is simple, lacking a notch and groove. The total length of the specimens were 129.43 mm.
The Spanish dancer is widespread throughout the tropical Indo-Pacific , from East Africa and the Red Sea to Hawaii . According to Winck worth, the original description of Hexabranchus Sanguineus and some other species of nudibranchs was most likely published in 1830 [36,37]. Previously in India this species was reported from Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Lakshadweep Archipelago. This is the first report of Hexabranchus Sanguineus from the Kerala coast of India [38-41].
The author are grateful to the Scientist in - charge, VRC of CMFRI for the support and encouragement. We also thank Mr. Garry Cobb, Australia for providing necessary information and help in the identification of specimens.
- Bouchet P, Rocroi JP. Classification and nomenclature of Gastropod families. Malacologia 2005;47(1-2):1-397.
- Gosliner TM, Behrens DW, Valdes A. Indo-pacific nudibranchs and sea slugs: A field guide to the worlds most diverse fauna. Sea challenger’s natural history books and California Academy of Sciences 2008;425.
- Thompson TE, Brown GH. Biology of opisthobranch molluscs. 1976.
- Gosliner TM. Aposematic colouration and mimicry in opisthobranch molluscs: New phylogenetic and experimental data. Bollettino Malacologica 2001;37:163-70.
- Wagele H, Klussmann-Kolb A. Opisthobranchia (Mollusca, Gastropoda)-more than just slimy slugs. Shell reduction and its implications on defence and foraging. Front Zool 2005;2:1-18.
- Greenwood PG. Acquisition and use of nematocysts by cnidarian predators. Toxicon 2009;54:1065-70.
- Aguado F, Marin A. Warning coloration associated with nematocyst-based defenses in aeolidiodean nudibranchs. J Molluscan Stud 2007;73(1):23-28.
- Haber M, Cerfeda S, Carbone M, et al. Coloration and defense in the nudibranch gastropod Hypselodoris Fontandraui. MBL 2010;218(2):181-8.
- Putz A, Konig GM. Wagele H. Defensive strategies of Cladobranchia (Gastropoda Opisthobranchia). Nat Prod Rep 2010;27:1386-402.
- Avila C. Natural products of opisthobranch molluscs: A biological review. Oceanogr Mar Biol 1995;33:487-559.
- Dean LJ, Prinsep MR. The chemistry and chemical ecology of nudibranchs. Nat Prod Rep 2017;34:1359-90.
- Narayanan KR. On three opisthobranchs from the south-west coast of India. J Mar Bio Ass India 1968;10:377-80.
- Valdes A, Mollo E, Ortea JA. Two new species of Chromodoris (Mollusca: Nudibranchia Chromodorididae) from southern India with a redesciption of Chromodoris trimarginata (Winckworth 1946). Proc Calif Acad Sci. 1999;51:461-72.
- Ravinesh R, Biju Kumar A. Comparison of intertidal biodiversity associated with natural rocky shore and seawall: A case study from Kerala coast. Indian J Mar Sci 2013;42:223-35.
- Ravinesh R, Jabir T, Biju Kumar A, et al. First record of sea slug Polybranchia Orientalis ( Sacogloss: Caliphyllidae) from the south-west coast of India. Mar Biodiver Rec 2014;7:1-2.
- Biju Kumar A. Marine animals of Kerala coast (Malayalm). Kerala State Biodiversity Board, Thiruvananthapuram, India 2012;304.
- Chinnadurai S, Bhave V, Apte D, et al. First record of long-tailed pelagic sea slug Stylocheilus longicauda (Gastropoda : Opisthobranchia ) from southwest coast of India. J Mar Biol Ass India 2014;56:81-4.
- Sheeja MS, Padmakumar K. New Record of Plakobranchus ocellatus Van Hasselt, 1824 from Kerala coast, India. Indian J L Sci 2014;4:1-5.
- Sheeja MS, Padmakumar K. First report of the Pleurobranchomorpha, Berthellinacitrina (Rüppell & Leuckart, 1828) (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Southwest coast of India. J Bio and Env Sci 2014;5:229-33.
- Venkataraman K, Raghunanthan C, Raghuraman R, et al. Fascinating sea slugs and flatworms of Indian seas ZSI. 2015;149.
- Apte D, Desai D. Field Guide to sea slugs of India. BNHS 2017;459.
- Alder J, Hancock A. Notice of a collection of Nudibranchiate, Mollusca made in India by Walter Elliot, Esq., with descriptions of several new genera and species. Trans Zool Soc Lond 1865:113-47.
- Rudman WB, Darwell BW. Opisthobranch molluscs of Hong Kong: part 1. Goniodorididae, Onchiodorididae, Triophidae, Gymnodorididae, Chromodorididae (Nudibranchia). Asian Marine Bio 1990;7:31-79.
- Farran GP. Report on the opisthobranchiate Mollusca collected by Professor Herdman, at Ceylon, in 1902. In: Report to the government of Ceylon on the pearl oyster fisheries of the Gulf of Manaar. Sup Rep 1905;3(21):329-64.
- Eliot CNE. On the Nudibranchs of southern India and Ceylon, with special reference to the drawings by Kelaart and the collections belonging to Alder and Hancock preserved in the Hancock Museum at Newcastle-on-Tyne. Proc Zool Soc 1906;636-91.
- Sundaram KS, Sarvesan R, Mohamed KH, et al. Catalogue of molluscs, prawns, stomatopods and marine algae in the reference collections of the central marine fisheries research institute. Bulletin of CMFRI. 1969;9:1-52.
- Rao KV. The morphology of Kalinga ornata (Ald and Han). Rec Indian Museum 1936;38(1):41-79.
- Rao KV, Sivadas P, Kumary LK. On three rare doridiform nudibranch mollusks from Kavaratti Lagoon, Laccadive Islands. J Mar Biol Assoc 1974;16(1):113-25.
- Gravely FH. Shells and other animal remains found on the Madras beach. II. Snails, etc. (Mollusca Gastropoda). Bulletin of the Madras Government Museum, New Series, Natural History Section 1942;5(2):1-110.
- Satyanarayan S, Phalguni P. Record of the sea slug, Kalinga Ornata Alder & Hancock, 1864 from the inshore waters of Bay of Bengal along Chennai coast. Indian J Fish 2012;59(1):151-4.
- Subha Rao NV, Dey A, Barua S. Estuarine and marine mollusks. Fauna of West Bengal Part 9 (State fauna series 3). ZSI 1992;129-268.
- Rie N, Jiro U, Toshihiko F, et al. Kalinga ornata Alder and Hancock 1864 (Nudibranchia: Polyceridae): A unique case of a Seaslug feeding on Echinoderms. J Molluscan Stud 2011;77(4):413- 416.
- Double T. Here be Giants. BBC Wildlife 1992;10(5):34-40.
- Debelius H. Nudibranchs and sea snails. Indo-Pacific Field Guide 1996;321.
- Thompson TE. Observations on Hexabranchus from the Australian Great Barrier Reef Gastropoda Opisthobranchia Veliger 1972;15:1-5.
- Winck worth R. A note on Rang, Leuckart and Ehrenberg. J Molluscan Stud 1942;24(5-6):290.
- Apte D, Salahuddin VK. Record of Hexabranchus Sanguineus (RUPPELL & LEUCKART, 1828) from Lakshadweep archipelago, India. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 2010;107(3).
- Sreeraj CR, Raghunathan C, Yogesh Kumar JS, et al. Guide to the Opisthobranchs of Andaman and Nicobar Islands: 1-198. Zoological Survey of India. ISBN 2010;978(81):8171-2615.
- Apte D, Desai D. Field Guide to sea slugs of India. Bombay Natural History Society 2017;459.
- Rüppell E, Leuckart FS. New Invertebrates of the Red Sea. In Atlas on the voyage in North Africa 1830;1-12.
- Sneha Chandran BK, Shrinivaasu V, Ravinesh R, et al. Opisthobranch (Mollusca: Gastropoda) fauna of Kerala, India: A citizen science initiative. J Mar Biol Ass India 2017;59(1).