Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Diagnosis and Therapy

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Letter to Editor - Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Diagnosis and Therapy (2021) Volume 6, Issue 4

Toxoplasmosis.

Shawn Kruger*

Editorial Office, Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Diagnosis and Therapy, London, United Kingdom

Corresponding Author:
Shawn Kruger
Editorial Office
Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Diagnosis and Therapy
London, United Kingdom
E-mail: [email protected]

Accepted date: July 15, 2021

Citation: Kruger S.Toxoplasmosis.J Parasit Dis Diagn Ther 2021;6(4):1

Abstract

Toxoplasmosis is a parasite illness caused by the apicomplexan Toxoplasma gondii. Toxoplasmosis infections in adults generally have no visible signs. People may experience minor flu-like symptoms such as muscular pains and sensitive lymph nodes for a few weeks or months at a time. Eye issues may arise in a small proportion of persons. Congenital toxoplasmosis is a disease that can harm a kid if a woman becomes infected during pregnancy. Toxoplasmosis is disseminated mostly by the consumption of improperly cooked food containing cysts, contact with infected cat faeces, and transmission from an infected woman to her unborn child during pregnancy. Blood transfusions can occasionally transmit the illness. It does not transmit between people in any other way. However, it can infect most types of warm-blooded animals, including humans. Diagnosis is typically by testing blood for antibodies or by testing the amniotic fluid in pregnant women for the parasite's DNA.

Editorial

Toxoplasmosis is a parasite illness caused by the apicomplexan Toxoplasma gondii. Toxoplasmosis infections in adults generally have no visible signs. People may experience minor flu-like symptoms such as muscular pains and sensitive lymph nodes for a few weeks or months at a time. Eye issues may arise in a small proportion of persons. Congenital toxoplasmosis is a disease that can harm a kid if a woman becomes infected during pregnancy. Toxoplasmosis is disseminated mostly by the consumption of improperly cooked food containing cysts, contact with infected cat faeces, and transmission from an infected woman to her unborn child during pregnancy. Blood transfusions can occasionally transmit the illness. It does not transmit between people in any other way. However, it can infect most types of warm-blooded animals, including humans. Diagnosis is typically by testing blood for antibodies or by testing the amniotic fluid in pregnant women for the parasite's DNA.

Prevention is by properly preparing and cooking food. Pregnant women are also recommended not to clean cat litter boxes or, if they must, to wear gloves and wash their hands afterwards. Treatment of otherwise healthy people is usually not needed. Spiramycin or pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine, as well as folinic acid, may be used to treat infections during pregnancy. Toxoplasmosis affects up to half of the world's population, yet it causes no symptoms. In the United States, about 11% of the population is infected, but in certain parts of the world, it is as high as 60%. Congenital toxoplasmosis affects about 200,000 people each year. Nicolle and Manceaux in Tunisia and Splendore in Brazil were the first to characterise Toxoplasma gondii in 1908. The protozoan was discovered in a rabbit by Splendore, and it was discovered by Nicolle and Manceaux in a North African rodent called the gundi by Nicolle and Manceaux (Ctenodactylus gundi). Nicolle and Manceaux distinguished the protozoan from Leishmania in 1909. A giant panda held in a Chinese zoo died of severe gastroenteritis and respiratory illness in 2014, and Toxoplasma gondii was shown to be the cause of death. Despite its anecdotal nature, this research highlights that T. gondii is likely to infect all warm-blooded animals, even endangered species like the giant panda. T. gondii infections are found all throughout the world, however infection rates vary greatly by nation. Latin America (about 50%-80%), parts of Eastern and Central Europe (about 20%-60%), the Middle East (about 30%-50%), and parts of Southeast Asia (about 20%- 60%) are the areas with the highest prevalence for women of childbearing age, according to a survey of 99 studies conducted in 44 countries.

T. gondii is the protist that causes toxoplasmosis. There are three primary kinds of T. gondii that are responsible for Toxoplasmosis patterns all over the world. There are three types: type I, type II, and type III. Because of their genetic differences, these three forms of T. gondii have different impacts on different hosts, namely mice and humans.

Type I: Pathogenic in mice and humans, and found in AIDS patients.

Type II: Non-virulent in mice but virulent in humans (mostly in Europe and North America), as found in AIDS patients.

Type III: Non-virulent in mice, virulent mostly in animals but also in humans to a lesser extent.

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