Journal of Clinical Endocrinology Research

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Short Communication - Journal of Clinical Endocrinology Research (2023) Volume 6, Issue 2

The Masters of Calcium Control: unveiling the intricate role of parathyroid glands in maintaining bone health and mineral balance.

Joao Martins*

Department of Molecular, Cellular and Pharmacobiology Section, Institute for Pharmaceutical Biology, University of Bonn, Germany

Corresponding Author:
Joao Martins
Department of Medical Sciences
School of Veterinary Medicine
University of Wisconsin-Madison, Usa, E-mail:

Received: 15-Mar-2023, Manuscript No. AAJCER-23-99960; Editor assigned: 20-Mar-2023, PreQC No. AAJCER-23-99960(PQ); Reviewed: 03-Apr-2023, QC No AAJCER-23-99960; Revised: 06-Apr-2023, Manuscript No. AAJCER-23-99960(R); Published: 12-Apr-2023, DOI:10.35841/aajcer-6.2.136

Citation: Martins J. The masters of calcium control: unveiling the intricate role of parathyroid glands in maintaining bone health and mineral balance. J Clin Endocrinol Res. 2023;6(2):136

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The parathyroid glands, despite their small size and inconspicuous presence, play a pivotal role in maintaining bone health and mineral balance within the human body. Located in close proximity to the thyroid gland, these four tiny glands are responsible for regulating the levels of calcium and phosphate, essential minerals that are crucial for various physiological processes [1]. In this article, we delve into the intricate mechanisms by which the parathyroid glands contribute to the maintenance of bone health and mineral balance. This mechanism conserves calcium and helps restore blood calcium levels to normal. Furthermore, PTH enhances the conversion of vitamin D into its active form, calcitriol, in the kidneys. Calcitriol facilitates the absorption of calcium and phosphorus from the intestines, further contributing to mineral balance.

Parathyroid hormone and calcium regulation:

The chief function of the parathyroid glands is to produce and secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH), a key regulator of calcium levels in the bloodstream. When blood calcium levels drop, the parathyroid glands respond by releasing PTH. PTH then acts on the bones, kidneys, and intestines to increase calcium availability in the blood. It promotes bone resorption, stimulating osteoclasts to break down bone tissue and release calcium into the bloodstream. Simultaneously, PTH enhances the reabsorption of calcium in the kidneys and stimulates the production of active vitamin D, which increases calcium absorption in the intestines [2].

Mineral balance and parathyroid glands:

Apart from regulating calcium levels, the parathyroid glands also maintain mineral balance by controlling phosphate levels. PTH inhibits phosphate reabsorption in the kidneys, leading to increased urinary excretion of phosphate. This mechanism helps to prevent excessive accumulation of phosphate, which can interfere with calcium metabolism and contribute to the formation of mineral deposits in soft tissues [3].

Effects of parathyroid hormone on bone:

PTH exerts both direct and indirect effects on bone tissue [4]. Through its osteoclast-stimulating action, PTH increases bone resorption, releasing calcium into the bloodstream. However, prolonged excess PTH can have detrimental effects on bone health, leading to bone loss and increasing the risk of osteoporosis. This delicate balance between bone resorption and formation is regulated by various factors and feedback mechanisms.

Disorders of the parathyroid glands:

Imbalances in the function of the parathyroid glands can result in disorders such as hyperparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism. Hyperparathyroidism occurs when the parathyroid glands produce excessive PTH, leading to elevated blood calcium levels [5]. This can contribute to the development of kidney stones, bone loss, and other complications. Hypoparathyroidism, on the other hand, is characterized by insufficient production of PTH, resulting in low blood calcium levels and potentially causing muscle spasms, tetany, and neurological symptoms.


The parathyroid glands play a vital role in maintaining bone health and mineral balance by regulating calcium and phosphate levels within the body. Through the secretion of parathyroid hormone, these small glands orchestrate a complex series of actions involving bone, kidneys, and intestines to ensure adequate calcium availability for physiological functions. Understanding the intricate mechanisms of parathyroid gland function is crucial for diagnosing and managing disorders related to bone health and mineral balance, ultimately contributing to overall well-being.


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