Research and Reports on Genetics

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Short Communication - Research and Reports on Genetics (2023) Volume 5, Issue 2

The Importance and Advancements of DNA Sequencing

Roel Schaaper*

Department of Medicine, Juntendo University, Japan

*Corresponding Author:
Roel Schaaper
Department of Medicine
Juntendo University

Received:28-Feb-2023,Manuscript No. AARRGS-23-90095; Editor assigned:03-Mar-2023,PreQC No. AARRGS-23-90095(PQ); Reviewed:17-Mar-2023,QC No. AARRGS-23-90095; Revised:21-Mar-2023, Manuscript No. AARRGS-23-90095(R); Published:28-Mar-2023,DOI:10.35841/aarrgs-5.2.139

Citation: Schaaper R. The importance and advancements of DNA sequencing. J Res Rep Genet.2023;5(2):139

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DNA sequencing is the process of determining the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. DNA sequencing is a powerful tool in modern biology and has revolutionized our understanding of genetics, evolution, and disease. In this article, we will explore the history of DNA sequencing, different methods of DNA sequencing, and some of the applications of DNA sequencing.[1].

The history of DNA sequencing dates back to the early 1970s when the first DNA sequence of a gene was determined using a method called maxam-Gilbert sequencing. However, this method was laborious, time-consuming, and produced small DNA fragments, limiting its usefulness. The advent of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in the 1980s and the development of automated DNA sequencing in the 1990s revolutionized the field of DNA sequencing. PCR allows amplification of a specific DNA sequence, making it possible to sequence small amounts of DNA from a variety of sources. Automated DNA sequencing, on the other hand, involves the use of fluorescent dyes and automated machines to sequence DNA, making the process faster, more accurate, and more cost-effective. There are several methods of DNA sequencing, each with its advantages and limitations. Sanger sequencing is a method of DNA sequencing that involves the use of Di Deoxy Nucleotide Tri Phosphates (ddNTPs) to terminate DNA synthesis at specific sites.[2].

The resulting DNA fragments are separated by size using gel electrophoresis and read using fluorescent dyes. Sanger sequencing is the gold standard of DNA sequencing and is still widely used for small-scale sequencing projects. Next-generation sequencing is a collective term for a group of high-throughput sequencing technologies that can sequence millions of DNA fragments simultaneously. NGS has dramatically reduced the cost and time required for DNA sequencing and has enabled large-scale genome sequencing projects.[3].

NGS technologies

Illumina sequencing: Illumina sequencing uses reversible terminators and sequencing-by-synthesis to generate short reads of DNA fragments. Illumina sequencing is the most widely used NGS technology and is capable of producing high-quality data at a low cost. Ion Torrent sequencing is a semiconductor-based sequencing technology that uses pH changes to detect nucleotide incorporation during DNA synthesis. Ion Torrent sequencing is faster than Illumina sequencing but has a higher error rate and shorter read lengths.

 PacBio sequencing uses single-molecule real-time sequencing to generate long reads of DNA fragments. PacBio sequencing has a higher error rate than Illumina sequencing but can detect structural variations and epigenetic modifications. Third-generation sequencing is a newer generation of DNA sequencing technologies that can sequence single molecules of DNA without the need for amplification. Third-generation sequencing .Nano pore sequencing uses nanopores to detect changes in electrical current as DNA strands pass through them. Nano pore sequencing can generate long reads of DNA fragments and has the potential for real-time sequencing. SMRT sequencing: SMRT sequencing uses zero-mode waveguides to capture light emitted during DNA synthesis, enabling real-time sequencing of single molecules of DNA. SMRT sequencing can generate long reads of DNA fragments and can detect DNA modifications.[4].

DNA sequencing has numerous applications in biology, medicine, and biotechnology. Some of the applications of DNA sequencing are Genome sequencing involves the sequencing of an organism's entire DNA sequence. Genome sequencing has enabled the identification of genes involved in various biological processes and the discovery of genetic variations associated with diseases. DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. This process is important because it allows scientists to study the genetic material of organisms and identify mutations and genetic variations that may be linked to disease, evolution, or other biological processes. In this article, we will explore the history and technology behind DNA sequencing, as well as its applications and limitations.[5].



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