Addiction and Criminology

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Opinion Article - Addiction and Criminology (2022) Volume 5, Issue 1

The generation of clots in aneurysms treated with shape memory polymer foam was studied computationally.

Walter Muller*

Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Institute of Psychology, Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany         

*Corresponding Author:
Walter Muller
Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy
Institute of Psychology, Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg
Heidelberg, Germany 
E-mail: [email protected]

Received: 27-Jan-2022, Manuscript No. AARA- 22-101; Editor assigned: 29-Jan-2022, PreQC No. AARA-22-101(PQ); Reviewed: 12-Feb-2022, QC No. AARA-22-101; Revised: 17-Feb-2022, Manuscript No. AARA- 22-101(R); Published: 24-Feb-2022, DOI:10.35841/aara-6.1.101

Citation: Muller W. The generation of clots in aneurysms treated with shape memory polymer foam was studied computationally. Addict Criminol. 2022;5(1):101

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The development of computer approaches aimed at expediting the interventional planning process for unruptured cerebral aneurysm therapy has received a lot of attention. Computational models of thrombus development after endovascular device installation are included in these strategies. The fundamental issue in constructing computer models for thrombosis in illness instances is that there is a large body of literature that covers various parts of the clotting process, but it isn't always clear what knowledge is relevant to which modelling purpose (e.g., for understanding the effect of endovascular therapies). The goal of this study is to offer the material in such a way that it will be useful to those wanting to model cerebral aneurysm thrombosis for interventional planning purposes in a simple but suitable way. The paper opens by outlining current knowledge of physiological coagulation and highlighting the recognized differences between physiological coagulation and cerebral aneurysm thrombosis. The clinical observations of thrombosis following the implantation of an endovascular device are then presented. The demands placed on computational models designed for interventional planning are then detailed in the following section. Finally, existing thrombosis computational models are described. This final section begins with a description and discussion of physiological computational clotting models, which are extremely useful in learning how to build a general computational clotting model. Then there's a look at computer models of clotting in brain aneurysms in particular. Despite considerable advances toward computational forecasts of thrombosis following device placement in cerebral aneurysms, there are still many gaps. The clinical, experimental, and computational groups will need to work together to answer the key questions.

The hemostatic process keeps the circulatory system in good shape. Clotting happens when a blood vessel is injured under physiological conditions. Because platelet activity and fibrin creation coincide, bleeding is stopped and the healing process begins. The equilibrium between the procoagulant and anticoagulant processes is disrupted in some people, resulting in excessive clotting or insufficient clotting. There are additional illnesses where clotting occurs without harm to the blood vessel wall, such as malignancies and acute coronary syndromes. Clot formation has been connected to circulating forms of tissue factor identified on tumor cells or cell-derived macroparticles in both diseases. Thrombosis is a biological response that is intimately associated to cerebral aneurysms, which are balloon-like dilations of blood vessel walls caused by weakened vessel wall layers. According to research involving populations in the United States, Canada, Europe, and Japan, cerebral aneurysms have a prevalence of 1–5% and a rupture risk of 0.6 percent per year, with 30–50 percent death or severe morbidity as a result of rupture. Both ruptured and unruptured aneurysms have been found to have thrombosis. Thrombosis can either stabilize or hasten the path to rupture in an unruptured aneurysm. This is true for both spontaneous and device-induced clots, which form in the aneurysm sac without any external input or interference. The various surgical (clips) and endovascular procedures (coils, coils and stent, flow diverter) Because developments in medical imaging technologies have increased the frequency of aneurysms discovered accidently during routine scans or tests for other disorders, the ability to anticipate unruptured aneurysm growth is becoming increasingly significant. The decision to treat an aneurysm that would otherwise have remained innocuous throughout the patient's life causes an unnecessary load on healthcare systems and exposes the patient to iatrogenic hazards. On the other hand, failing to treat an asymptomatic aneurysm may result in death if the aneurysm ruptures. Intervention decisions are chosen depending on the aneurysm's morphological features. When determining whether treatment is required, factors such as size, position, shape, aspect ratio, and bottleneck factor are taken into account [1].

In cerebral aneurysms, the main differences between physiological clotting and thrombosis are related to initiation. Tissue factor is required for these processes to commence the series of clotting reactions that result in the creation of a fibrin mesh, although the source of this tissue factor is unknown. Injury to the artery wall is required in classic coagulation models for the exposure of subendothelial tissue factor, which triggers clotting. The artery wall of cerebral aneurysms is particularly damaged, with the endothelium missing for substantial sections of the sac. Endothelial damage in the aneurysm sac has been associated to clot initiation. Recent research has also confirmed the presence of blood-borne tissue factor, a circulating form of the protein that aids in the clotting process. Blood-borne tissue factor's specific role in clotting is debatable. There appears to be some agreement that this circulating type of tissue factor has an effect when an aberrant stimulus, such as higher shear rate, is present. This is important for brain aneurysms because they frequently cause complex hemodynamics with changing shear rates. It has been demonstrated that adding circulating tissue factor to blood boosts fibrin formation under flow circumstances. It would be advantageous to know the exact shear rate threshold at which circulating tissue factor becomes significant and to take this into account while studying cerebral aneurysm hemodynamics [2].

The second major distinction is the impact of changed pathological hemodynamics on platelet activity. Platelets can be activated by irregular flow patterns and high shear loads in arterial disorders caused by stenosis.Platelets that have been activated can attract other platelets, forming platelet plugs. The presence of recirculation zones, which are widespread in illness, increases the mixing of coagulation proteins, allowing fibrin to develop.

Given all of the contributing elements and knowledge gaps, it seems appropriate to begin our study of cerebral aneurysm thrombosis by looking at the physiological clotting mechanism. The platelet and biochemical pathways explaining the latter can thus be used to construct a cerebral aneurysm thrombosis model that takes platelet activity and/or coagulation proteins into account [3].

The most significant changes are in clot initiation and development. It's important to weigh the relative contributions of subendothelial and blood-borne tissue factors. Furthermore, the hemodynamic environment must be well described, as flow disruptions have a major impact on platelet activation and protein transport.

References

  1. Abildgaard U. Inhibition of the thrombin-fibrinogen reaction by heparin in the absence of cofactor. Scand J Haematol. 1968;5(6):432-9.
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  3. Anand M, Rajagopal K, Rajagopal KR, et al. A model for the formation, growth, and lysis of clots in quiescent plasma. A comparison between the effects of antithrombin III deficiency and protein C deficiency. J Theor Biol. 2008;253(4):725-38.
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  5. Basmadjian D. The effect of flow and mass transport in thrombogenesis. Ann Biomed Eng. 1990;18(6):685-709.
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