Short Communication - Journal of Public Health Policy and Planning (2022) Volume 6, Issue 8
The effects of cigarette and hookah smoking on COVID-19: A public health emergency.
Sakineh Gerayllo*, Zohreh Karimiankakolaki and Reza Sadeghi
Department of Health Education and Promotion, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord, Iran
- Corresponding Author:
- Dr. Sakineh Gerayllo
Department of Health Education and Promotion
Islamic Azad niversity, Shahrekord, Iran.
E-mail: [email protected]
Received: 01-Aug-2022, Manuscript No.AAPHPP- 20-15973; Editor assigned: 04- Aug-2022, PreQC No. AAPHPP- 20-15973 (PQ); Reviewed: 18- Aug-2022-2022, QC No.AAPHPP-20-15973; Revised: 22- Aug-2022, Manuscript No.AAPHPP- 20-15973 (R); Published: 28- Aug-2022,DOI: 10.35841/aaphpp- 6.8139
Citation: Gerayllo S, Karimiankakolaki Z, Sadeghi R. The effects of cigarette and hookah smoking on COVID-19: A public health emergency. 2 J Public Health Policy Plann. 2022;6(8):139
COVID-19 is a coronavirus outbreak that initially appeared in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, in December 2019, but it has already evolved into a pandemic spreading rapidly worldwide. Since early December 2019, the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has caused pneumonia epidemic in Wuhan, Hubei province of China. This disease now been con?rmed as acute respiratory infection (i.e., pneumonia) caused by a novel coronavirus. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently declared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) a public health emergency of international concern. Fever is the most common initial symptom of disease. Conditions that increase oxygen needs or reduce the ability of the body to use it properly will put patients at higher risk of serious lung conditions such as pneumonia.
COVID-19, Hookah smoking, Pneumonia, Oxygen.
Key health behaviour’s consist of covering one’s mouth when coughing, hand washing, social distancing, and reduced hand to-hand contact that public health have tended to emphasise. In addition to maintaining personal hygiene, COSH strongly advises the public not to initiate smoking and go smoke-free in order to reduce the susceptibility to respiratory illness . Tobacco is the fourth most important risk factor in increasing the burden of disease and has caused health, social and economic problems worldwide. The tobacco use is recognized as a global health problem. Tobacco smoke increases the rate of transmission and severity of viral respiratory tract infections. Tobacco is consumed in different ways such as cigarette, hookah, and chewing. An increase in hookah smoking is considered to be a serious health problem in societies with different cigarette smoking patterns. Since the smoking ban in the UK, hookah consumption has risen by approximately 210%. Hookah smoking increases the risk of infection. Hookah smoke contains high concentrations of carbon monoxide, nicotine, tar and heavy metals. Thus, hookah users are at a greater risk of serious respiratory diseases. Hookah smoking has been growing among people because consumers believe that smoking in the form of hookahs has lesser health effects than cigarette. Despite the belief that hookah allows the smoker to inhale purified smoke, a misconception that remains prevalent in society today, hookah has been shown to be associated with a wide range of detrimental health effects. Evidence indicated that a large spectrum of individual and social factors was effective in various levels of hookah consumption. The most common reasons for individuals’ inclination to smoke hookah were positive viewpoints toward smoking hookah, wrong beliefs about its low risks, presumed lack of addiction, social acceptance, ease of access, wrong cultural habits, and regulative weakness. Given that the family plays an important role in the initiation of hookah use in women, tobacco use prevention and cessation interventions should be focused on targeting the family. On the other hand the hookah is often smoked and shared in a social gathering among friends and family members. Hookah factors that promote its popularity may include its social acceptance. Using shared oral tubes is a common custom among hookah smokers, and can cause disease transmission. These adverse effects may affect exposed non-smoker’s as well [2-7].
Investigated Factors Affecting of COVID-19 Disease
Hookah smokers are being warned that the activity can lead to greater risk of COVID-19 infection. Therefore, it is absolutely necessary to evaluate the possible factors affecting the progression of disease COVID-19. We investigated factors affecting the of COVID-19 disease in order to evaluate the cigarette smoking and hookah on COVID-19 [8-11]. Vardavas and Nikitara identified smoking is most likely associated with the negative progression and adverse outcomes of COVID-19. History of smoking (OR, 14.285; 95% CI: 1.577-25.000; P = 0.018), respiratory failure (or, 8.772, 95% CI: 1.942-40.000; P = 0.016) were risk factors for disease progression. These results suggest the need for authorities to view this issue as an important dilemma, and to plan to reduce hookah use and solve this problem using effective methods to educate and inform people. One of the best ways to prevent the spread of hookah smoking is the inability to access the hookah at home. Smoking causes different diseases and it is better to avoid all tobacco products because none of them are safe. Smoking products such as water pipes often involve the sharing of mouth pieces and hoses, which could facilitate the transmission of COVID-19 in communal and social settings [12-14]. Smoking causes viral respiratory diseases and it is better to avoid all tobacco products because nobody is safe. Community, also cigarette and hookah consumers are responsible for reducing Coronavirus disease. Efforts are needed to community reduce disease in order to the increasing awareness of potential health risks of hookah user [15,16]:
• Providing disposable hoses
• Disposable mouth tips
• Proper hookah device cleaning practices in private and public hookah venues settings.
• Prohibiting use flavorings in hookah tobacco; local laws/ regulations to eliminate flavorings in hookah tobacco.
The factors related to cigarette and hookah consumption among smokers
• Avoid smoking and smoking (hookah, pipe, etc.) to maintain personal health.
• Avoid smoking in public places to prevent others from encountering second hand smoke.
• Avoid smoking hookah and other tobacco jointly due to the possibility of coronavirus transmission.
• Avoid smoking in places such as hookah shops and smoking rooms that transmit viral infections.
• Until further notice, avoid carbon monoxide testing by measuring devices in smoking cessation clinics and lung doctors' offices.
The tobacco use is recognized as a global health problem. Tobacco smoke increases the rate of transmission and severity of viral respiratory tract Infections. Hookah smoking has been growing among people because consumers believe that smoking in the form of hookahs has lesser health effects than cigarette. Thus, hookah users are at a greater risk of serious respiratory diseases.
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