Journal of Medical Oncology and Therapeutics

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Mini Review - Journal of Medical Oncology and Therapeutics (2023) International Conference on oncology

The cell cycle: an introduction to cellular reproduction

Géraldine Lamot *

de Duve Institute, UCLouvain, 75 avenue Hippocrate, 1200 Brussels, Belgium

*Corresponding Author:
Géraldine Lamot
de Duve Institute, UCLouvain
University of Brussels

Received: 29-Jun-2023, Manuscript No. JMOT-23-109774; Editor assigned: 30-Jun-2023, PreQC No. JMOT-23-109774 (PQ); Reviewed: 18-Jul-2023, QC No. JMOT-23-109774; Revised: 19-Jul-2023, Manuscript No. JMOT-23-109774 (R); Published: 31-Jul-2023, DOI: 10.35841/jmot-8.4.157

Citation: Lamot G. The cell cycle: an introduction to cellular reproduction. J Med Oncl Ther. 2023;8(4):157

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The cell cycle is a fundamental process that governs cellular reproduction and growth in all living organisms. It is a meticulously regulated sequence of events that ensures the accurate replication and division of cells. Understanding the cell cycle is crucial for comprehending the basis of development, tissue repair, and the origins of diseases like cancer. In this article, we will delve into the key phases of the cell cycle and their significance in cellular reproduction. The cell cycle is divided into two main phases: interphase and mitotic phase (M phase). Interphase is the longer part of the cell cycle and comprises three stages: G1 (Gap 1), S (Synthesis), and G2 (Gap 2). During interphase, the cell grows in size, replicates its DNA, and prepares for cell division [1].

G1 phase is the initial phase of interphase, during which the cell grows and synthesizes proteins necessary for DNA replication and cell division. In this phase, the cell monitors its internal and external environment to ensure that the conditions are favorable for further progression through the cell cycle. Following G1, the cell enters the S phase, where DNA replication occurs. The genetic material duplicates itself, forming two identical sets of chromosomes. These replicated chromosomes are called sister chromatids, which remain attached to each other at a region called the centromere. After DNA replication, the cell progresses to the G2 phase. In this stage, the cell synthesizes essential proteins and organelles needed for the upcoming cell division. G2 phase acts as a checkpoint to ensure that DNA replication was completed accurately and that the cell is ready to enter the M phase. The next stage of the cell cycle is the mitotic phase (M phase), where the actual cell division takes place. M phase can be further divided into several sub-stages: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase [2].

Prophase marks the beginning of M phase. During prophase, the chromatin, a complex of DNA and proteins, condenses into visible chromosomes. The nuclear envelope disassembles, and the mitotic spindle begins to form, organizing itself between two centrosomes located at opposite ends of the cell.In metaphase, the chromosomes align along the equatorial plane of the cell, known as the metaphase plate. The spindle fibers attach to the centromeres of the chromosomes, ensuring they are correctly aligned before division [3].

Next comes anaphase, where the sister chromatids are separated and pulled toward opposite poles of the cell by the shortening of the spindle fibers. This ensures that each daughter cell will receive a complete set of chromosomes during cell division. Finally, during telophase, the cell undergoes significant changes. The separated chromatids arrive at the poles, and the nuclear envelopes begin to reform around the separated chromosomes, creating two distinct nuclei. This marks the end of the mitotic phase. The cell cycle concludes with cytokinesis, which is not technically a part of mitosis but involves the division of the cytoplasm and organelles between the two daughter cells. In animal cells, a contractile ring composed of actin filaments pinches the cell membrane inward, eventually dividing the cell into two daughter cells. In plant cells, a cell plate forms along the equatorial plane, developing into a new cell wall that separates the two daughter cells [4].

Checkpoints: Throughout the cell cycle, there are specific checkpoints that act as control mechanisms to ensure the cell's progression is accurate and error-free. The three main checkpoints are located in the G1, G2, and M phases. These checkpoints monitor the integrity of the DNA, the completeness of DNA replication, and the proper alignment of chromosomes during mitosis, respectively. If any issues are detected at these checkpoints, the cell cycle can be halted, allowing time for repairs or initiating cell death (apoptosis) if the errors are irreparable [5].


In conclusion, the cell cycle is a fascinating and crucial aspect of cellular reproduction. Its intricate phases and regulatory mechanisms ensure the accurate replication and division of cells, contributing to the growth, development, and maintenance of living organisms. Further research into the cell cycle will undoubtedly deepen our understanding of life's fundamental processes and may lead to advances in medical treatments for various diseases, including cancer.


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