Journal of Psychology and Cognition

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Opinion Article - Journal of Psychology and Cognition (2023) Volume 8, Issue 3

The adverse effects of living with Parkinson′s disease.

Xiao Wen*

Department of Educational Psychology, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China

Corresponding Author:
Xiao Wen
Department of Educational Psychology
East China Normal University, Shanghai

Received: 27-Apr-2023, Manuscript No. AAJPC-23-94255; Editor assigned: 02-May-2023, PreQC No. AAJPC-23-94255 (PQ); Reviewed: 09-May-2023, QC No. AAJPC-23-94255; Revised: 17-May-2023, Manuscript No. AAJPC-23-94255 (R); Published: 23-May-2023, DOI: 10.35841/aajpc - 8.3.180

Citation: Wen X. The adverse effects of living with Parkinson’s disease. J Psychol Cognition. 2023;8(3):180

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Non-Motor Symptoms is Parkinson's disease can also cause a range of non-motor symptoms, including cognitive impairment, depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbances. These symptoms can significantly impact a person's quality of life and may require additional treatment beyond the management of motor symptoms. Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects movement and other neurological functions. It is estimated that approximately 1 million people in the United States and 10 million people worldwide have Parkinson's disease [1].

Causes of Parkinson's disease

Parkinson's disease is caused by the degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons in the brain. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in movement, mood, and motivation. The exact cause of Parkinson's disease is not fully understood, but it is believed to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

Some genetic mutations have been linked to Parkinson's disease, but they are rare and account for only a small percentage of cases. Environmental factors such as exposure to toxins, head injuries, and viral infections have also been linked to Parkinson's disease, but the evidence is inconclusive [2].

Symptoms of Parkinson's disease:

The symptoms of Parkinson's disease vary from person to person and can be mild or severe. The most common symptoms of Parkinson's disease include:

Tremors: Tremors are involuntary shaking of the hands, arms, legs, or head that usually occur at rest.

Rigidity: Rigidity is stiffness or inflexibility of the muscles that can make movement difficult.

Bradykinesia: Bradykinesia is slowness of movement, which can make everyday tasks take longer to complete.

Postural instability: Postural instability is difficulty maintaining balance and posture, which can increase the risk of falls.

Other symptoms of Parkinson's disease may include: Reduced sense of smell, Constipation, Sleep disturbances, Depression and anxiety, Cognitive impairment [3].

Diagnosis of Parkinson's disease:

There is no specific test to diagnose Parkinson's disease, and diagnosis is based on the patient's medical history, symptoms, and a physical exam. A neurologist or movement disorder specialist may order additional tests such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or positron emission tomography (PET) to rule out other conditions that may cause similar symptoms [4].

Treatment of Parkinson's disease:

There is no cure for Parkinson's disease, but there are treatments options that can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life. Treatment options may include:

Medications: Medications such as levodopa, dopamine agonists, and MAO-B inhibitors can help increase dopamine levels in the brain and improve motor symptoms.

Deep brain stimulation: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) involves the implantation of electrodes in the brain that deliver electrical stimulation to targeted areas. DBS can improve motor symptoms and reduce medication requirements.

Physical therapy: Physical therapy can help improve balance, mobility, and reduce the risk of falls.

Speech therapy: Speech therapy can help improve communication and swallowing difficulties that may occur in Parkinson's disease.

Lifestyle modifications: Lifestyle modifications such as regular exercise, a healthy diet, and stress reduction can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life [5].


Living with Parkinson's disease can have a range of adverse effects on individuals, affecting various aspects of their lives. While the specific symptoms and their severity can vary from person to person, there are several common adverse effects that can significantly impact the quality of life for individuals with Parkinson's disease. Some of the key adverse effects of living with Parkinson's disease include:

Parkinson's disease primarily affects the motor system, leading to tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), and postural instability. Parkinson's disease can also manifest in non-motor symptoms such as cognitive impairment, depression, anxiety, sleep disturbances, and fatigue. Dealing with a chronic progressive disease like Parkinson's can lead to emotional challenges, including frustration, fear, sadness, and a sense of loss. As the disease progresses, individuals may face difficulties with activities of daily living, such as dressing, eating, and personal hygiene. Parkinson’s disease can disrupt social interactions and occupational roles. Managing Parkinson's disease often involves regular visits to healthcare professionals, numerous medications, and potential surgical interventions.


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