Journal of Cancer Immunology & Therapy

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Rapid Communication - Journal of Cancer Immunology & Therapy (2024) Volume 7, Issue 3

Stem cell transplantation in hematology: Curing blood disorders.

Zeliha Can *

Department of Infection Control Nursing, Üniversitesi Hastanesi, Turkey

*Corresponding Author:
Zeliha Can
Department of Infection Control Nursing, Üniversitesi Hastanesi, Turkey

Received: 03-Jun -2024, Manuscript No. AAJCIT-24-138053; Editor assigned: 04-Jun-2024, PreQC No. AAJCIT-24-138053 (PQ); Reviewed:18-Jun-2024, QC No. AAJCIT-24-138053; Revised:24-Jun-2024, Manuscript No. AAJCIT-24-138053 (R); Published:01-Jul-2024, DOI:10.35841/aara-7.3.215

Citation: Can Z., Stem cell transplantation in hematology: Curing blood disorders. J Cancer Immunol Ther. 2024;7(3):215

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Stem cell transplantation, also known as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), stands as a beacon of hope in the field of hematology, offering a potential cure for various blood disorders. From leukemia and lymphoma to aplastic anemia and thalassemia, stem cell transplantation has revolutionized the treatment landscape, providing patients with a chance for long-term remission and even cure. In this article, we explore the principles of stem cell transplantation, its applications in treating blood disorders, and recent advancements shaping its efficacy and safety [1].

These stem cells have the remarkable ability to regenerate and differentiate into various types of blood cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. The procedure aims to replace diseased or malfunctioning bone marrow with healthy stem cells, thereby restoring the production of normal blood cells [2].

In autologous transplantation, the patient's own stem cells are collected and stored prior to undergoing high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Following intensive treatment to eliminate diseased cells, the stored stem cells are infused back into the patient, promoting hematopoietic recovery. Autologous transplantation is commonly used in treating certain types of lymphomas and multiple myeloma, offering a means of achieving remission without the risk of graft rejection or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) [3].

Allogeneic transplantation involves the infusion of stem cells obtained from a genetically matched donor, typically a sibling or unrelated volunteer. Allogeneic transplantation offers the potential for a graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect, wherein the donor's immune cells recognize and eliminate residual cancer cells in the recipient. However, allogeneic transplantation carries a higher risk of complications, including GVHD, in which the donor's immune cells attack the recipient's tissues [4].

Stem cell transplantation serves as a curative option for patients with high-risk or relapsed leukemia. By replacing diseased bone marrow with healthy stem cells, transplantation offers a chance for complete remission and long-term survival. Allogeneic transplantation, in particular, provides the added benefit of GVL effect, reducing the risk of disease recurrence [5].

Allogeneic transplantation may be considered for patients with aggressive lymphomas or those with high-risk features, offering the potential for durable disease control. Stem cell transplantation offers a definitive treatment for aplastic anemia, a rare disorder characterized by bone marrow failure. By replenishing the bone marrow with healthy stem cells, transplantation restores normal blood cell production, alleviating symptoms and improving the patient's quality of life [6].

Haploidentical transplantation involves using stem cells from a partially matched family member, typically a parent or child. Advances in haploidentical transplantation techniques, such as post-transplant cyclophosphamide, have significantly reduced the risk of GVHD while maintaining graft-versus-leukemia activity. Haploidentical transplantation offers a valuable alternative for patients without a fully matched donor [7].

RIC regimens employ lower doses of chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy prior to stem cell transplantation, reducing the intensity of pre-transplant conditioning while preserving the graft-versus-leukemia effect. RIC expands the eligibility for transplantation to older patients and those with significant comorbidities, improving overall outcomes and reducing treatment-related toxicities [8].

CAR-T cell therapy utilizes genetically engineered T cells to target and eliminate cancer cells expressing specific surface antigens. While not a traditional stem cell transplantation, CAR-T cell therapy has emerged as a promising treatment modality for certain types of leukemia and lymphoma, offering durable remissions in patients who have failed conventional therapies [9].

In both Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, stem cell transplantation plays a crucial role in achieving remission, especially in cases of relapse or refractory disease. Stem cell transplantation involves the infusion of healthy hematopoietic stem cells into a patient's bloodstream [10].


Stem cell transplantation remains a cornerstone of treatment for various blood disorders, offering the prospect of cure and long-term remission. With advancements in transplant techniques, reduced-intensity conditioning, and alternative donor sources, transplantation has become more accessible and effective for a broader range of patients. As research continues to unravel the complexities of hematopoietic stem cell biology and transplantation immunology, the future holds promise for further improvements in outcomes and survivorship for patients undergoing stem cell transplantation.


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