Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology

All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.

Review Article - Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology (2023) Volume 6, Issue 2

statistical analysis on the regulation of blood pressure

Bin Zhao1*, Xia Jiang2

1School of Science, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

2Hospital, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

*Corresponding Author:
Bin Zhao
School of Science
Hubei University of Technology
Wuhan, Hubei, China

Received: 28-Feb-2023, Manuscript No. AABB-23-90333; Editor assigned: 03-Mar-2023, PreQC No. AABB-23-90333(PQ); Reviewed: 17-Mar-2023, QC No AABB-23-90333; Revised: 21-Mar-2022, Manuscript No. AABB-23-90333(R); Published: 28-Mar-2023, DOI:10.35841/aabb-6.2.137

Citation: Zhao B, Jiang X. statistical analysis on the regulation of blood pressure. J Biochem Biotech. 2022;6(2):137

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology


Background: Hypertension is one of the most common diseases in the current era. With the increase in life pressures, the number of people with high blood pressure is constantly increasing. Multiple types of medical drugs are used to treat high blood pressure, but despite their use in treatment, they have many side effects, so with the beginning of the twentieth century, the World Health Organization sought to urge the use of alternative medicine in the treatment of many diseases because of its characteristics that make it superior on medical drugs, the most important of which is that it has no side effects.The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Fashareen on the regulation of blood pressure. Material and Methods: The study was designed to include hypertensive patients, where 30 participants were taken from OPD of government and private hospitals in Faisalabad according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study. Consent was taken from individuals for an assessment and intervention procedure. A recommended dose of 1 tablet of Fashareen twice a day was given to the patients in 12 hours apart period, and after that, we collected the data again from the patients e.g Blood pressure and heartbeats. Results: Significant change in blood pressure values after the treatment in a group in addition to a significant decrease in heart rate values after the treatment in a group. Conclusion: Fashareen is quite effective in controlling blood stress.


Hypertension, Fashareen, OPD, Blood Pressure, Heartbeats.


If an individual is found to have systolic blood strain extra than 140mmgh or he's having diastolic blood stress greater than 90mmgh then he is a topic of hypertension. So these circumstances, a medical doctor will endorse an antihypertensive drug to take at least two times a day [1].

Hypertension is a public health problem in many countries, where the incidence of infection ranges between 25-30% in adults, while in the elderly, it ranges from 60-70%. The death rate from high blood pressure is increasing around the world, and this is due to the weak methods of prevention and control of high blood pressure around the world [2].

At the present time, it is possible to control blood pressure by following healthy habits such as sports and healthy food, in addition to taking appropriate medical drugs [3].

Some countries have resorted to using alternative medicine in the treatment of high blood pressure for its great benefits and the absence of side effects compared to medical drugs, and the most important of those herbs used are green tea, garlic, parsley, mint, grapes, and cinnamon [4].

As defined by means of the Who, one of the most existencethreatening ailments is CVD, and high blood pressure is the main cause of it.It now not handiest purpose CVDs but additionally motive many other complications like renal impairment, Blindness and peripheral vascular diseases. According to WHO, Due to hypertension,approximately seven million motilities arise worldwide annually [5].

While speak me approximately, the prevalence of high blood pressure in advanced countries is ready to thirty-five percentages, and in developing international locations, its prevalence is excessive with the forty percent of the expected quotes. On a mean its prevalence in all around the world is set at eighteen percentages (NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC). Worldwide trends in hypertension prevalence and progress in treatment and control from 1990 to 2019: a pooled analysis of 1201 population-representative studies with 104 million participants.

In a totally latest study WHO has observed that in Middleincome international locations, its occurrence is about thirtyseven percentages. According to another take, a look at the prevalence of high blood pressure is about 38% within the two provinces of America.

Hypertension Classification and Control

There are primary high blood pressure classifications: The European Society of Hypertension/European Society of Cardiology (ESH/ESC) kind [6] and the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (JNC 7 Report) type.

According to the World Health Organization, blood pressure is classified into four categories, which will be listed in the following table 1 [7].

Both are based totally on at least blood strain measurements using a sphygmomanometer, recording as systolic blood stress phase I Korotkoff sounds and as diastolic blood stress section, V Korotkoff sounds.Both classifications use >a hundred and forty/ninety mmHg due to the fact the reduced factor in diagnosing excessive blood stress.

According to the WHO, about 1000 million human beings are dwelling without control of hypertension worldwide. The prevalence of out-of-manage hypertension in America is anticipated to be fifty-three.Five% of those with hypertension, affecting approximately 35. Eight million people (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). In a cutting-edge observation in center income countries, it was modified into placed that approximately 33. Three% of hypertensive sufferers have been out of manipulation. In Panama, among hypertensive sufferers who collect remedy, the rate of out of manipulating high blood stress changed to forty-seven.2%.

Benefits of Controlling Hypertension

Several research have proven the relationship between blood strain and the threat of a cardiovascular event. As hasgrown to be said with the useful resource, for every growth of 20 mmHg in systolic blood strain and 10 mmHg in diastolic blood strain, the hazard of ischemic coronary heart disorder and stroke is doubled. In the equal file, it became installation additionally that the connection between blood pressure and danger of cardiovascular disorder (coronary heart assault, coronary heart failure, stroke, and kidney sicknesses) is non-save you, consistent and impartial of other danger factors, which includes immoderate LDL- cholesterol, low degrees of excessivedensity lipoprotein, smoking, diabetes and left ventricular hypertrophy. The benefits of blood pressure diploma cut price have been validated in the VALUE take a look at. wherein a lower occurrence of cardiovascular infection and mortality changed into decided in people with managed hypertension in contrast to people with out-of-control hypertension (blood stress >a hundred and forty/90mmHg). In addition, in the FEVER have a look at a 28% bargain in coronary disorder, stroke, and cardiovascular mortality turn out to be examined in the ones randomized to active antihypertensive treatment, in assessment to those randomized to placebo.

High blood pressure is known as the silent killer because most sufferers do not feel any symptoms. High blood pressure may arise from the artery component, which often arises due to high cholesterol and atherosclerosis, which may lead to heart disease. Therefore, it is necessary to control high blood pressure for several things, including Heart health, preventing strokes, increasing lifespan, and protecting kidneys from damage.

Improving Hypertension Control

Hypertension manipulation is a complex problem that desires lively cooperation amongst physicians, sufferers, healthcare employees and healthcare systems. The first step to cope with the out-of-manage excessive blood strain problem is to boom close to comprehensive high blood strain prevention and remedy suggestions based honestly on properly-designed research. However, the ones guidelines need to be regular with the aid of all scientific societies to facilitate their implementation. Medical doctors need to be knowledgeable approximately pointers; however, an audit is also essential to confirm the implementation segment successfully. Patient remedy compliance is a complex problem that is prompted by factors which include cultural behaviors and beliefs and former reviews in the healthcare system [6]. The healthcare device performs a critical position in high blood pressure management and is accountable for offering the critical gear and audit to guarantee the implementation of the proper recommendations [8]. The Panamanian countrywide fitness government (Ministry of Health and the Social Security Fund), to deal with the high blood strain problem, advanced a setup software program to deal with excessive blood pressure in cooperation with the Pan American Health Organization in 2009.

Non-communicable diseases have grown to be a brilliant contributor to the global burden of illness, accounting for 50 eight% of preferred disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 2013. Notably, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular illnesses accounted for thirteen. Five% of desired DALYs are global. The fashion is comparable in growing international places, wherein the ones situations contributed 12.Three % to modern DALYs.

Using DALYs to estimate the load of sickness in Vietnam, no communicable ailments accounted for sixty-six%, accidents for sixteen% and infections and extremely good illnesses for 18% of the full in 2013. Regarding the financial outcomes, an expected 20 million US$, equal to 0.033% of annual countrywide GDP, have emerged as out of location due to no communicable ailments in 2005, which have grown to be predicted to double by means of way of using 2015 if no interventions have been established region [9]. The priorities for investment in the health place are based totally mostly on modifications within the kinds of disease, illustrated in Figure 1. In Vietnam, the health region invested in communicable illnesses in previous years, and successfully controlled them to a positive quantity. In the approaching years, solutions to save you and manage non-communicable sickness want investments to be reinforced [10]. Among the non-communicable illnesses, cardiovascular illness (CVD) dominates. For instance, searching the burden of sickness due to non-communicable illnesses, the most crucial situation contributing to the lack of DALYs is CVD, at around 23%. Therefore, this thesis will require recognition of the prevention of CVD as an instance of a vital non-communicable disorder burden for Vietnam with the potential for superior prevention and remedy.


Figure 1: Burden of diseases in Vietnam by year.

Most national initiatives develop strategies with the aim of reducing heart disease, the most important of which is the control of high blood pressure. As the rate of controlling high blood pressure to <140/<90 mm Hg has increased in most countries, however, the burden of unregulated high blood pressure still exist [11]. This concentrates on the combination of results from empirical studies on chance elements in the Vietnamese populace into relevant fashions to be searching earlier to very last medical effects and on the fee-effectiveness of diverse approaches to prevention. The very last motive is to provide pointers on CVD prevention in comparable developing global locations based totally on financial issues.

Several studies have recently been done in the field of quality improvement to reduce and control high blood pressure. However, there is still a shortcoming in the subject regarding the lack of skilled doctors capable of controlling high blood pressure, in addition to the fact that these programs used only to control high blood pressure. The patient was only six months old.

One of the most important of these programs is the MAP program, which allows for controlling high blood pressure within six months. One of the advantages of using modern technologies in control without the need for employees is the ease of its application in outpatient clinics and mobile units.

Health Machine and Fitness Services in Pakistan

Pakistan health gadget is ready from the countrywide to the provincial to the district then to the community (grassroots) degree. Primary health care offerings, which want to be the primary location to access fitness care, are supplied at the grassroots diploma. In workout, human beings can get the right of entry to fitness services at higher tiers proper now without a primary healthcare medical clinical medical doctor’s referral and should purchase treatment without prescriptions in the unfastened market [12]. In present-day years, health offerings for non-communicable illnesses have been prolonged at network health stations and district degrees.

This is visible as an immoderate development. However, difficult issues within the modern fitness care machine's tendencies need to be considered. Firstly, a couple of entrances for health offerings bring about issues in following up with sufferers and in estimating the complete burden of ailments. Secondly, the absence of health information systems and absence of integration among unique health offerings, mainly for sufferers with continual illnesses, purpose inconvenient or ineffective treatment and useless lifelong health care. Thirdly, lack of capability and budgets for non-prevent and lifetime management of persistent illnesses at community health stations motive below-detection, below-evaluation and underremedy of illness. This thesis desires to research answers for better CVD prevention and remedy in Vietnam.

In the subsequent sections of this financial break, the strategies and solutions used in the studies described in this thesis may be mentioned. The final segment introduces the primary contents of every financial ruin.

An amount of education and hints on early detection and management of CVD are to be had from high-quality worldwide places all through the region, some of which may also have functionality for software in Vietnam. Strategic priorities forthe prevention and management of CVD are often guided by the World Health Organization (WHO). The WHO recommends three techniques: (12) decreasing CVD risk factors correctly; growing answers to govern CVD with interest for charge effectiveness and equity; and monitoring CVD and its chance factors. These strategies hobby on every number one and secondary prevention.

Primary CVD prevention strategies have been centered on human beings with CVD risk elements collectively with behavioral or metabolic factors. Population-based totally truly interventions frequently popularity on behavioral threat factors collectively with smoking, immoderate alcohol intake, terrible weight-reduction plan, a bodily nation of no interest or having pressure. Individual-based totally definitely really interventions usually include screening and treatment that specialize in metabolic CVD danger factors collectively with immoderate blood stress, diabetes, weight troubles and dyslipidemia.

Especially excessive blood strain is an idea to be a critical element contributing to the burden of CVD. The prevalence of immoderate blood stress has been growing in modern-day years [9].

Unfortunately, the share of undiagnosed humans with excessive blood pressure is expected to be pretty excessive, both globally and in Vietnam: fifty 3% globally and approximately fifty % in Vietnam [9].

This excessive style of undiagnosed hypertensive folks who are not but on suitable treatment is one key impediment to lowering the weight of this ailment. Screening for excessive blood pressure is, therefore, a critical first step to boom every recognition and treatment of excessive blood pressure, which could possibly probable, in the long run, reduce the weight of CVD [11].

Several studies on screening for high blood pressure were finished. In Canada, it's far encouraged to check the blood pressure of all adults within the path of everyday visits to physicians, but there may be no evidence regarding people who seldom get the right of access to fitness care. The most dependable frequency of screening remains unknown, and no evidence is available about the awesome screening c language. In theus, screening is usually recommended for all adults every one or years. There, it becomes positioned that annual screening end up greater precise (with a famous eleven% development) in assessment with a regular screening at every go to.

In the United Kingdom, a population-based, completely truly screening software program for excessive blood strain emerged as no longer recommended. In The Netherlands, the advice is to show immoderate blood stress based on age, statistics of CVD and one-of-a-kind CVD chance factors. In Japan, a health center-based totally sincerely test in a population now not taking antihypertensive remedy at baseline and older than a long term advised that the recommended screening c programming language for excessive blood strain, every each or three years, relies upon the systolic blood stress diploma [13].

Up to now, there may be inadequate proof concerning the effect on mortality and morbidity of population-huge screening for excessive blood pressure in developing global places [14].

Furthermore, the maximum dependable technique for screening below given situations remains unsure. For instance, which part of the population must become the screening hobby: population-huge or awesome, those human beings with an excessive threat? Which screening c software program language length wants to be completed [14].

After detecting immoderate blood stress, suitable treatment plays a crucial characteristic in controlling blood strain and lowering the danger of CVD. This is composed of every prevalence of remedy and adherence. Although proof exists that prolonged-time period adherence to remedy amongst hypertensive sufferers reduces CVD sports, adherence to remedy can be very low. For instance, one met evaluation protective 376,162 sufferers using a remedy to save you CVD decided the proportion of adherent sufferers to be simplest 57%. Information approximately adherence, elements affecting adherence, and the effect on outcomes at the same time as adherence improves aren't to be had for the Vietnamese populace [15].

To grow to be aware about the efficacy of an intervention, the popular method is to run medical trials, mainly double-blind, randomized, controlled trials (RCT). However, there are boundaries to mission RCTs, which incorporate, for instance, the huge scale and extended length, resulting in excessive fees. Additionally, there are ethical troubles concerning the inclusion of sufferers on the pinnacle of things agencies or exposing them to untested remedies. Finally, RCTs often intermediate diploma outcomes in choice to medical endpoints of morbidity and mortality. To help overcome those barriers, several fashions were advanced to assume CVD sports activities sports in populations. For example, the Framingham hazard score, the “assessing cardiovascular chance to Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network to assign preventative treatment” (ASSIGN) rating, systematic coronary risk evaluation (SCORE) rating, Prospective Cardiovascular Munster (PROCAM) rating, QRESEARCH cardiovascular hazard algorithms, and the World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ ISH) models are famous and often applied in research. In Asian nations, the Asian and Chinese Multiple-provincial Cohort Study (CMCS) models have been advanced in current-day years. The crucial versions of some of the one fashions are the parameters used, which might also additionally moreover provide one-of-a-type effects. It is vital to pick out the maximum appropriate model while one is wanted for software application software to a population precise from the real populace for which it changed into advanced. An assessment of several fashions to properly expect the final results of CVD interventions in the prediction of the consequences of numerous treatments assumes an exceptional enough adherence to the remedy. As said above, accurate adherence appears to be essential for max effectiveness of hypertensive remedies to save you CVD. Understanding the elements that impact adherence can help beautify the remedy's effectiveness.

Measuring adherence and its outcomes on scientific results can assist in quantifying the real effect of blood strain treatment interventions. A form of strategies, questionnaires, machines and scales were introduced to degree adherence amongst patients with chronic ailments [16].


Beta-blockers are used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as tachycardia, high blood pressure, and hyperthyroidism.Fashareen is anUnani Product that also has a Beta Blocker Mechanism to control hypertension. In this thesis, we are going to check its effectiveness in patients with uncontrolled hypertension.

The catecholamines, epinephrine, and norepinephrine bind with B1 receptors and increase heart activity and movement. Where B1 receptors trigger resonance that leads to an increase in blood pressure, while binding to B2 receptors works to relax muscles in addition to increasing glycogenolysis.

As the call indicates, β-blockers paint with the useful resource of being antagonists for β-adrenergic receptors and can be divided into selective and non-selective β-blockers. An antagonist method binds with immoderate affinity to the receptor but has no intrinsic hobby. Because they bind with higher affinity than they outcompete the endogenous catecholamine, thus preventing the signalling related to catecholamine binding. Selective β-blockers bind to a selected subtype of β-receptor, whilst non-selective drugs bind to both β1 and β2-receptors. An example of a selective β-blocker is Bisoprolol which could be a β1-selective βblocker; this is utilized in patients suffering from high blood pressure. β1-selective β-blockers are extra safe for patients laid low with asthma as it has a decreased hazard of inducing bronchoconstriction in those sufferers compared to non-selective β-blockers. When β-adrenergic receptors are blocked, the catecholamines most effective have α-adrenergic receptors to bind to, and α-adrenergic receptors set off bronchoconstriction, which really is the reason for allergies being a treatment with β-blockers. Of be conscious is that β2-blockers are not used clinically [17].

Β-blockers are endorsed to be used collectively with Angiotensin-converting enzymeinhibitors (ACE-inhibitors), due to the fact the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis reasons a boom inside the workload of the coronary heart and might accordingly be an extraordinary target of drugs treating coronary heart failure [18].

Fashareen Ingredients

Rauwolfia (Rauwolfia serpentina) is an evergreen shrub that is a member of the dogbane or Apocynaceae own family. More than one hundred species are included inside the Rauwolfia genus, and they're local to tropical and subtropical regions of the arena, inclusive of Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia, and the Central and South Americas. Rauwolfia serpentina is native to the wet, deciduous forests of Southeast Asia, including India, Burma, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Malaysia. The plant commonly grows to a pinnacle between 60 and ninety cm and has moderate inexperienced leaves, which are probably 7 to ten cm prolonged and three.Five to five. Zero cm massive. The leaves are elliptical or lanceolate formed and arise in whorls of three to 5 leaves. The plant has many fantastic, black or pink, spherical cease approximate end results.Five cm in diameter. It moreover has small pink or white plants. The plant has an incredible tuberous, easy taproot that reaches a duration between 30 and 50 cm and a diameter of 1.2 and more than one [19].

The mechanism of motion of reserpine is properly researched and nicely documented. Reserpine binds to protein receptors called vesicular monoamine transporters (VMATs) in the organelle membranes of specialized secretory vesicles of presynaptic neurons. Reserpine prevents intracellular neurotransmitters from binding to VMAT proteins and prevents secretory vesicles from uptaking neurotransmitters

Two isoforms of vesicular delivery proteins are known as VMAT1 and VMAT2. VMAT1 is in particular located inside the neuroendocrine cells of the peripheral worried device, in particular inside the chromaffin granules within the adrenal medulla, sympathetic neurons, and platelets. VMAT2 is especially located inside the thoughts, sympathetic stressful gadget, mast cells, and cells containing histamine within the intestine and pancreas. Reserpine has an affinity for VMAT2; this is 3 instances extra than its affinity for VMAT1. It has a strong affinity and binds nearly irreversibly to unique receptors on VMAT, mainly VMAT2.Rauwolfia's medicinal importance is because it contains many phytochemicals such as flavonoids, phytosterols, oleoresins, steroids, tannins, and alkaloids.

Research has shown that Rauvolfia serpentina has an effective role in treating patients with high blood pressure. Where 4 studies confirmed that systolic blood pressure (SBP) has an effective role in reducing systolic blood pressure (SBP) compared to chemical drugs, in addition to its high ability to reduce cholesterol levels and regular heart rate [20].

Hyoscyamus Niger

It is a poisonous plant known as henbane fungus of the family Solanaceae. It grows in Europe and Siberia [21].

Where this plant is used by boiling its leaves or extracting essential oils from it, the amount used must not exceed 0.5 g and 1.5– 3 g because then it becomes poisonous. Henbane is toxic to some animals, livestock, and fish. The plant contains phytochemical compounds such as hyoscyamine, scopolamine, and other tropane alkaloids. Its mechanism of action depends on blocking the effect of acetylcholine on the brain, which is associated with cases of hallucinations and dementia. Hyoscyamus Niger has an effect on hypertensive patients by reducing BP through a Ca (++)-antagonist [22].

Tribulus terrestris

This is a Mediterranean fruit-covered, thistle-covered plant of the Zygophyllaceae family, known as puncture vine. Its fruits and leaves are used as a remedy and as a food supplement due to the fact that it contains phytochemical compounds such as steroidal saponins [23].

The gift study investigated the antihypertensive mechanism of Tribulus in 2K1C hypertensive rats via the length of circulatory and local ACE hobby in the aorta, coronary heart, kidney and lung. Four corporations of rats were selected; manipulate, sham-operated or hypertensive, and Tribulus treated hypertensive corporation. Hypertension has become brought on using silver clip on renal artery by using manner of surgical treatment. Four weeks after the surgical remedy, an unmarried daily dose of 10 mg/kg of lyophilized aqueous extract of Tribulus fruit was given orally to 2K1C rats for four weeks. The systolic blood stress (SBP) improved drastically in 2K1C rats compared to control rats. The SBP of Tribulus-fed hypertensive rats has become extensively reducedcompared to hypertensive rats.


It is an annual herb of the family Apiaceae known as Chinese parsley, Dhaniya, or cilantro. All parts are eaten, but dried beans are used more in cooking. The taste of its leaves is similar to soap due to the presence of a gene related to aldehyde, which gives a sense of soap taste.

Coriander is a tremendous treatment to manipulate excessive blood stress. It is filled with heart-friendly fibers. Studies have claimed that materials from coriander interact with calcium ions and the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which facilitates loosening anxiety in blood vessels. Additionally, the spice may be very powerful in modulating intestine interest, which can be very critical to control excessive blood pressure. Coriander seeds actually have a diuretic effect. A diuretic helps increase the passing of urine. Through urine, you're able to take away the extra sodium amassed on your device.


Its common name is lavender from the Lamiaceae family, native to the Old World. It is cultivated as an ornamental plant, but sometimes it is used in cooking and extracting essential oils. Due to its richness in phytochemical compounds such as lineally acetate (30-55%), linalool (20-35%), tannins (5-10%), and caryophyllene (8%), with lower amounts of sesquiterpenoids, perkily alcohols, esters, oxides, ketones, cineole, camphor, beta-ocimene, limonene, caprice acid, and caryophyllene oxide tea is used in alternative medicine to treat many diseases.

The outcomes discovered that lavender oil precipitated big decreases in blood pressure, coronary heart price, pores and pores, and skin temperature, indicating lower autonomic arousal. Works as a beta blocker.

Bamboo Shoot

It is used as a vegetable in cooking in Asian cuisine. It is found in a variety of forms, including dry, canned and fresh. The sprouts contain cyanogenic glycosides, a toxin that is eliminated by proper cooking and during the canning process.

The extracts of the bamboo shoot were evaluated for antihypertensive assets and top-notch cardiovascular protective homes through the use of manner of extremely good researchers. The aqueous extract of the bamboo shoot, even as further extracted with ethyl acetate and n-butanol, offers bamboo shoot angiotensin changing enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptide (bamboo shoot peptide [BSP]). This fraction indicates better antioxidant capacities than the aqueous fraction, which may be because of the presence of a higher quantity of phenolic acid, alongside ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid, which, whilst blended with ACE inhibitor, exert a synergistic impact. Flavonoid content material of every fraction is similar, but the aqueous extract exhibited maximum ACE inhibitory activity. On further purification of bamboo shoot ACE inhibitory peptide (BSP) from aqueous extract, Asp-Tyr comes to be placed due to the fact the important issue active detail. In the in-vivo animal study, BSP must drastically reduce systolic blood stress. Ferulic acid hasa vasodilator effect by growing the nitric oxide degree in serum and decorating oxidant pressure via way of its antioxidant interest in reaction to loose radicals via donating one hydrogen atom from its phenolic hydroxyl institution.

Piper Nigrum

Piper nigrum of the family Piperaceae The fruits are dried and used as a spice in cooking. The fruit is a stonefruit 5 mm in diameter and dark red in color; the stone.

on partial inhibition and verapamil added approximately complete inhibition of strain and fee of ventricular contractions and coronary go with the flow. In rabbit aortic rings, piperine inhibited high K+ (eighty mM) preconstruction and in part inhibited phenylephrine (PE), suggesting Ca2+ channel blockade (CCB), which emerged as similarly showed even as pretreatment of tissues with piperine induced rightward shift in Ca2+ attention-reaction curves, much like verapamil. In a Ca2+-unfastened medium, piperine (1 to 30 micro) exhibited vasoconstrictor impact. In rat aorta, piperine examined endothelium-impartial vasodilator impact and became stronger in competition to high K+ preconstruction than PE. In bovine coronary artery arrangements, piperine inhibited excessive K+ preconstruction completely. These facts suggest that piperine possesses a blood pressure-reducing effect mediated likely through CCB; at the same time, everyday lower BP became restrained through associated vasoconstrictor effect. Additionally, species selectivity exists in the CCB effect of piperine.


It is a manufactured spice of the Zingiberaceae family, native to the Indian subcontinent and Indonesia. Its seeds are small triangular grains with a simple green outer contain phytochemical compounds such as α-Terpineol 45%, myrcene 27%, limonene 8%, methane 6%, β-phellandrene 3%, 1,8-cineol 2%, Selinene 2% and heptane 2%. Other sources report 1, 8-cineol (20 to 50%), α-terpenylacetate (30%), sabinene, limonene (2 to 14%), and Borneol [24]. Ca channel blocker cardamom lessens the influx of Ca⁺⁺ thru calcium channels in cardiac muscle and lowers aortic stress. This capacity of cardamom has been done without delay through blockading the Ca - channel and indirectly through way inhibition of the excessive K⁺-prompted contraction [25].

Research Methodology

Study design

Study design used for this current study is a Quasi-experimental study.

Study Setting

We took participants from OPD department of government and private hospitals of Faisalabad.

Study Duration

We completed our data collection procedure and analysis of data within 4 months. We started our data collection procedure after taking the synopsis's approval and getting the university's data collection letter. After completing the data collection from patients, data were compiled and entered intothe SPSS sheet for data analysis to conclude the treatment results.

Sample size

30 participants were taken from OPD of government and private hospitals of Faisalabad according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study.

Sampling technique

Researcher used a convenient sampling technique for data collection.

Study population

Hypertensive patients from OPD of government and private hospitals of Faisalabad.

Inclusion criteria

Those participants who met the following inclusion criteria will include in the study:

Subjects who are willing to participate

• Both male and female

• 20 years to 40 years

• Blood pressure more than 140/90

Exclusion criteria

• Diabetes Mellitus

• Rheumatoid arthritis/inflammatory arthritis

• Prior respiratory disease(COPD)

• Substance user (smoking, alcohol)

Informed Consent

Participants were informed about the data collection process, desirable outcomes involving damage and advantages of the study. In order to prevent ethical concerns, before the data collection process, consent will take from individuals for assessment and intervention procedure

Outcome measures

Following outcome measures were used to collect data from selected participants.

Primary outcome measures

To check out the effect of Fashareen in hypertensive patients of Faisalabad.

Data Collection Tools

Following are the data collection tools used Systolic and Diastolic Blood pressure reading Heartbeat readings.

Equipment Required

• Pulse oximeter for measuring heart rate and SpO2 (optional)

• Sphygmomanometer to measure the blood pressure

Blood Pressure Measurement

While taking blood pressure readings, we made sure that the patient was relaxed and comfortable and that he was not afraid of the process so we could that the best and more accurate readings of the blood pressure. After taking the blood pressure of the patients, we included the patients only who had a B.P more than 140/90mmgh and other than that, we excluded the patients and recorded that accurate data for further study on spss.

Data Collection Procedure

In this study, information assortment was done from chosen setting to figure out the impacted patients of Faisalabad. Concentrate on the plan of our review was semi exploratory review. We utilized a straightforward irregular examining procedure, and the setting of our review was various emergency clinics in Faisalabad from where we gathered the information. Test size of our populace was thirty. We gather information from hypertensive patients from various clinics in Faisalabad. We remember just those subjects for our review to find the impact of Fashareen on hypertensive and cardiac wellness in patients who meet our considerations, and we reject the people who didn't meet our consideration rules. Patients got intercessions as indicated by the treatment plan. In the wake of accomplishing the objective, we entered information into the SPSS sheet and created the outcomes. Recurrence appropriation of distinct investigations was utilized to assess the occurrence of every reaction and gave the level of information. To figure out the impact of vigorous practices in pre and post-treatment matched T test utilized. Results were drawn by applying a suitable factual examination. To work with exploration and information, SPSS rendition 21 utilized, all information changed over into mathematical qualities after the assortment of information was finished because of the simple use of factual tests and information examination.

Data Management

Data collected from the patients of hypertension OPD department of government and private hospitals were arranged in a proper way. Measurements of all included patients were evaluated carefully and categorized. Patients' datawere carefully entered intothe SPSS sheet for analysis and revised to eliminate the chances of error.

Statistical analysis

Statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS statistical software version.

Ethical Consideration

The college gave an information assortment letter. Assent was gotten from OPD. Assent was taken from patients prior to signing up for the study. Patients were guaranteed that their information was utilized exclusively for research reasons. All essential data concerning study, treatment, and intercessions were given to patients before taking assent. Security and privacy of patients were protected. Arrangement of all data to patients about the concentrate in compelling manner and about advantages of treatment, no unsafe impacts of mediation through participatory data sheet.

Treatment Plan

Fashareen was the drug used in the treatment plan to check its effects in hypertensive patients. A recommended dose of 1 tablet twice a day was given to the patients for 12 hours apart period, and after that, we collected the data again from the patients e.g Blood pressure and heartbeats. And found the efficiency of the Fashareen in hypertensive patients is phenomenal.


Data Analysis and interpretation

All the measurable data connected with the outcome is remembered for this section. It incorporates the information examination of "Impact OF FASHAREEN ON PATIENTS OF HYPERTENSION". Information was determined through Clinical examination of the patients and evaluation of the blood pressure by sphygmomanometer from OPD division of Faisalabad clinics. The example size was 30, including males and females, Out of 30 participants, 21 (70.0%) were female, and 9 (30.0%) were Male.

As shown in table 1, and Figure 2. All members were allaround educated regarding the motivation behind the review and the assent structure was endorsed by the members before the enlistment. For the information investigation reason, SPSS rendition 23 was utilized, and for every variable, recurrence and rate tables and pie or reference diagram was utilized to introduce the information. Impact of high-impact practice surveyed with various elements was investigated by utilizing recurrence circulation, and a pie diagram matched T TEST separately. Every one of the members was signed up for the concentrate in the wake of satisfying the consideration measures.

Category Systolic B.P Diastolic B.P
Normal < 120 <80
Pre-hypertension 120-139 80-89
Stage-I Hypertension 140-159 90-99
Stage-II Hypertension ≥160 ≥ 100

Table 1. Classification of blood pressure.


Figure 2: Rauwolfia serpentine.

Out of 30 participants, 6.7(6.7%) belong to the age of 20 years. 3.3(3.3%) belong to age 21 years, 6.7(6.7%) belong to at age group 22 years, 3.3(3.3%) belong to at age group of 23 years, 3.3(3.3%) belong to at age group 24 years, 10.0(10.0%) are belongs to at age group of 25 years, 3.3(3.3%) are belongs to the age group of 27, 6.7(6.7%) belongs to age group 28, 3.3(3.3%)are belongs to the age group of 29, 6.7(6.7%) are belongs to age group 30years, 10.0(10.0%) are belongs to at age group of 32 years, 6.7(6.7%) belongs to age group 34 years, 10.0(10.0%) belongs to at age group of 35 years, 13.3(13.3%) belongs to at age group of 38 years, 3.3(3.3%) are belongs to at age group 39 years, 3.3(3.3%) belongs to at age group 40 years. Mean ±SD was 29.97 ± 6.278 years, Table 2 and Figure.3.

Gender of the patient
  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Female 21 70 70 70
Male 9 30 30 100
Total 30 100 100  

Table 2. Frequency distribution table of Gender.


Figure 3: Hyoscyamus Niger

Pre-Blood Pressure Values

Distribution of the pre-value of blood pressure between the participants was expressed in Table 3, and Figure 4.

Frequency distribution table of Age Categories
Valid   Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
20 2 6.7 6.7 6.7
21 1 3.3 3.3 10
22 2 6.7 6.7 16.7
23 1 3.3 3.3 20
24 1 3.3 3.3 23.3
25 3 10 10 33.3
27 1 3.3 3.3 36.7
28 2 6.7 6.7 43.3
29 1 3.3 3.3 46.7
30 2 6.7 6.7 53.3
32 3 10 10 63.3
34 2 6.7 6.7 70
35 3 10 10 80
38 4 13.3 13.3 93.3
39 1 3.3 3.3 96.7
40 1 3.3 3.3 100
Total 30 100 100  

Table 3. Frequency distribution table of Age Categories.


Figure 4: Tribulus terrestris.

Post Blood Pressure Values

Distribution of value of blood pressure between the participation after treatment with Fashareen was expressed in Table 4, and Figure 5.

Pre-Value Of Blood Pressure
Valid   Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
138/95 1 3.3 3.3 3.3
145/93 5 16.7 16.7 20
150/95 4 13.3 13.3 33.3
150/98 1 3.3 3.3 36.7
155/95 4 13.3 13.3 50
158/96 2 6.7 6.7 56.7
160/100 6 20 20 76.7
162/110 2 6.7 6.7 83.3
162/98 5 16.7 16.7 100
Total 30 100 100  

Table 4. Pre-value of blood pressure.


Figure 5: Coriander.

The value of blood pressure was reduced in age groups after treatment with Fashareen.

Pre-Post Analysis of Blood Pressure In Patients

This is the comparison of the blood pressure before and after the treatment. There is a difference in the mean blood pressure between these two intervals. The paired sample t-test results show a significant difference in means of pre and post-blood pressure score p-value < 0.05, Table 5, and Figure 6.

Post Values of Blood Pressure
  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 110/79 4 13.3 13.3 13.3
114/80 1 3.3 3.3 16.7
115/78 1 3.3 3.3 20
118/84 1 3.3 3.3 23.3
119/80 1 3.3 3.3 26.7
120/80 4 13.3 13.3 40
122/81 4 13.3 13.3 53.3
123/82 4 13.3 13.3 66.7
125/80 4 13.3 13.3 80
125/81 1 3.3 3.3 83.3
127/79 1 3.3 3.3 86.7
130/80 4 13.3 13.3 100
Total 30 100 100  

Table 5. Values of blood pressure between age groups after treatment with Fashareen.


Figure 6: Lavender.

Graph presents the blood pressure in pre and post-treatment patients. As graph represents that there is a significant change in blood pressure values after the treatment in the group

Pre-Post Analysis of Heart Rate in Asthmatic Patients

This is the comparison of the heart rate before the treatment and after the treatment. There is a difference in the mean heart rate between these two intervals. The paired sample t-test results show a significant difference in means of pre and postheart rate score p-value < 0.05, Table 6, 7 and Figure 7.

Paired Samples Statistics
  Mean N Std. Deviation Sig. (2-tailed)
Pair 1 pretreatment blood pressure 1.6 30 0.563 0.0001
post-treatment blood pressure 1.23 30 0.43

Table 6. Comparison of the blood pressure before and after the treatment

Paired Samples Statistics
  Mean N Std. Deviation Sig. (2-tailed)
Pair 1 pretreatment heart rate 91.3 30 6.964 .000
post-treatment heart rate 80.9 30 5.821

Table 7. Comparison of the heart rate before and after the treatment.


Figure 7: Bamboo Shoot.

Graph presents the heart rate in pre and post treatment in patients. As graph represents that there is a significant decrease in heart rate values after the treatment in the group Figure 8-15.


Figure 8: Piper Nigrum.


Figure 9: Cardamom.


Figure 10: Frequency distribution table of Gender


Figure 11: Age distribution in hypertension group.


Figure 12: Pre-value of blood pressure.


Figure 13: Values of blood pressure between age groups after treatment with Fashareen.


Figure 14: Comparison of the blood pressure before and after the treatment.


Figure 15: Comparison of the heart rate before and after the treatment.


Hypertension (HTN) is a chronic medical condition characterized by high blood pressure in the arteries. It can also be classified as a primary or secondary condition based on the main cause of high blood pressure. The number of people who are classified as primary hypertensive patients is between 90- 95% of the affected patients, where no clear cause is known behind the high blood pressure, while the rest are classified as secondary hypertensive patients due to health reasons related to the kidneys, or the heart [26].

High blood pressure usually leads to many diseases that affect the heart's health, dilate the arteries and affect kidney function, so it is always recommended to treat high blood pressure.Diet regulation is usually used to lower blood pressure, and some drug interactions are used in this (Benjamin et al., 2019) [27].

The motive of this takes a look at the turn out to be to describe the developments of out-of-control high blood strain in a primary healthcare center and the elements associated with this situation. This has a examine became designed as feasibility have a look to assess the present-day treatment practices for hypertensive adults and extra mainly the powerful ness of Fashareen andUnani treatment for the hypertensive sufferers. One of the essential findings of this check is that 66.7% of the look-at pattern had out-of-control hypertension.

However, these consequences changed into not surprising thinking about that we have a study turned into clinically based at a primary healthcare middle serving a single county, the intention populace becomes the hypertensive person population visiting the sanatorium, and, ultimately, the study used an extra conservative blood strain cut element to outline uncontrolled high blood pressure (>one hundred thirty/80 mmHg, or >one hundred forty/90 mmHg, depending at the form of comorbidities [28].

A logistic regression version changed into used to analyze the relationship among health practitioner adherence to antihypertensive protocols and the presence of uncontrolled excessive blood pressure. A wonderful interaction term changed into located among medical doctor adherence to protocols and age. In the stratified fashions, the percentages ratios for clinical doctor adherence to protocols were in opposite instructions, in spite of the reality that the estimates were now not notably precise from one. These outcomes advocate that age might be a functionality effect modifier for the affiliation between scientific doctor adherence to antihypertensive protocols and the presence of uncontrolled excessive blood strain. However, due to the small pattern length, the possible characteristic of age as an effect modifier for the mentioned relationship desires in addition exam. However, the primary goal of clinical trials for the Fashareen is pretty served, and the very last outcomes of this treatment are distinctly powerful ( Shiovitz et al., 2016) [29].

There is an ability biological reason for those findings. A study derived from the Framingham cohort confirmed that systolic blood stress extended linearly with age in the course of a lifetime; however, diastolic blood stress progressed linearly till the age of fifty to 60 years, and after this tended to diploma off over a decade, and later on can also stay the same for decrease. The joint growth of systolic and diastolic blood strain until the age of 50 years, makes the pharmacological titration manner less complicated for physicians the cause that every systolic and diastolic blood strain might be in particular excessive; however, for those above 50 years old, remoted systolic high blood strain is more predicted, and consequently it is going to be difficult to bring about a decrease in systolic blood stress without a decrease in diastolic blood pressure, that could motive hypotension signs; which makes high blood pressure control in this age institution extra hard. This is supported by way of the use of numerous studies in number one care settings that confirmed that seventy five% of physicians did now not provoke high blood stress treatment in older people with systolic blood strain a hundred and forty – 159 mmHg and most of them did now not chase manipulate quotes.In the bivariate analyses the subsequent variables had been related to having out-of-control hypertension: age, sort of comorbidities and the presence of diabetes mellitus. However, within the adjusted models, those variables were not big.

In recent centuries, due to the economic conditions, especially in developing countries, this prompted people to resort to the use of medicinal plants in order to reduce high blood pressure in an attempt to escape from the high prices of chemical drugs and their side effects [30].

This study was designed to show the effectiveness of using Fashareen in treating and controlling high blood pressure.

When the study was conducted on thirty males and females of different age groups, their blood pressure and heart rate were measured before and after starting the treatment, as the treatment plan lasted for four weeks. From the results of the study, it was found that females are more likely to have a high blood pressure than men. The incidence of high blood pressure increases after thirty, especially if there is a family history of high blood pressure, as the patient may become susceptible to infection at the age of twenty [31].

A decrease in blood pressure and heart rate was observed after treatment with Fashareen, as the results were statistically effective [32,33].

The importance of Fashareen as a blood pressure control treatment is due to the fact that it contains many herbal plants that contain phytochemical compounds that reduce high blood pressure in different ways, such as Ca(++)-antagonist, ACE blocker [34-36].

Limitations and Strengths

This check turns out to be designed as feasibility have a test, and it offers some belief on how future research wants to be designed, but some important limitations want to be cited [37-39].

The principal disadvantage is the pattern period, ensuing in a lack of electricity to stumble upon statistically vast variations. This method was even supposing there was a difference between many of the patients who have been dealt with following the protocols and those that have been no longer, our look at modified into now not able to come across a statistically large difference a few of the one's corporations.

These effects might not be generalizable to the overall population due to the reality the observation center turned out to be not selected by means of the use of the usage of randomization; as a substitute, it became selected based totally definitely totally on accessibility and available permission to perform the test. As the study was modified based totally on clinical chart assessment, the prognosis of excessive blood strain become not independently shown [40]

Also, statistics have been now not gathered for a few critical covariates that have previously been demonstrated to have an affiliation without manipulating excessive blood stress, which encompasses smoking records Race/ethnicity emerged as now not recorded in the scientific chart and, therefore, could not be considered inside the assessment [41,42]. Approximately 14% of observations lacked height, weight or every to calculate mass frame index and were now not blanketed inside the multivariate analysis. Another task has ended up that affected individual compliance with antihypertensive remedies and way of lifestyle changes recommendations were no longer assessed. From the noted above and the truth that our format no longer allows us to set up temporality, no statements on causality or incidence of out of manipulating high blood stress indoors the stylish population may be derived. The strengths of this have a look at encompassing that it modified into designed to restriction assets of systematic mistakes. Multivariate logistic regression fashions have been developed to test association among doctor adherence to protocols and manipulating excessive blood stress [43].

Another energy of this have a look at is that an extra conservative blood strain reduces element (>130/80 mmHg) modified into used for human beings with diabetes mellitus or any form of nephropathy to set up the presence of out of control high blood pressure. Other researches have used a hard and rapid blood pressure reduction aspect of >one hundred forty/ninety mmHg for all subjects.


The sample period used for now has concluded that Fashareen is quite effectivein controllingblood stress.

Uncontrolled high blood pressure is a public health hassle global, and the populace occurrence estimates for Panama is forty seven.2%. Among this look at the population, the superiority of out-of-control high blood stress grew to 66.7%, this is reflective of a clinic-based population, but it can't be generalized to the overall populace.

Nearly 1/2 of the attending physicians did now not comply with the hints given with the aid of modern antihypertensive protocols, in maximum cases due to a loss of recommending lifestyle modifications. Physician adherence to pharmacological remedy suggestions has grown to be excessive (98%). However, within the multivariate evaluation, it emerges as not viable to illustrate an association between health practitioner adherence to antihypertensive protocols and the presence of out of control excessive blood pressure.

Further studies are necessary to truly determine the affiliation among age, range of comorbidities and presence of diabetes mellitus without of control hypertension; particularly to evaluate the position of age as a potential modifier for the affiliation among out of manipulating high blood pressure and the medical doctor adherence to antihypertensive protocols recommendations. It is vital to realize which antihypertensive protocols guidelines paintings for what specific age businesses, due to the fact precise tips may be restated to gain the hypertensive population with poor blood pressure manipulate.

As feasibility look at, this research gives treasured belief inside the layout and path of future research. For instance, future research must comprehensively observe the position of age in out-of-control excessive blood strain and as a capacity impact modifier of scientific doctor adherence to protocols. In addition, destiny studies have to manipulate all capability confounders nicely, need to be as it should be sized, and must encompass a degree of patient compliance to antihypertensive protocols.


Further Treatment Plans should be made to test the performance of Fashareen in Patients of Different places, exceptional races and particular age organizations.

Further studies want to be done on using a sufficient sample length to verify the results of this examination. In addition, a similar exploration of the roles of age in uncontrolled hypertension is warranted.

Similarly, research in high blood pressure is important to determine the populace occurrence of uncontrolled hypertension through using a blood pressure reduction factor specific for character comorbidities, in addition to setting up the threat elements related to uncontrolled high blood pressure.

Conflict of interest

We have no conflict of interests to disclose and the manuscript has been read and approved by all named authors.


This work was supported by the Philosophical and Social Sciences Research Project of Hubei Education Department (19Y049), and the Staring Research Foundation for the Ph.D. of Hubei University of Technology (BSQD2019054), Hubei Province, China.


  1. El Sayed K, Macefield VG, Hissen SL, et al. Rate of rise in diastolic blood pressure influences vascular sympathetic response to mental stress. J Physiol. 2016;594(24):7465-82.
  2. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  3. Westerweel PE, Rienks R, Sakr A, et al. Diving with hypertension and antihypertensive drugs. Diving Hyperb Med. 2020;50(1):49.
  4. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  5. Rippe JM. Lifestyle medicine: the health promoting power of daily habits and practices. Am J lifestyle Med. 2018;12(6):499-512.
  6. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  7. Singh S, Shankar R, Singh GP. Prevalence and associated risk factors of hypertension: a cross-sectional study in urban Varanasi. Int J Hypertens. 2017 Oct;2017.
  8. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  9. Martín-Timón I, Sevillano-Collantes C, Segura-Galindo A, et al. Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease: have all risk factors the same strength?. World J Diabetes. 2014;5(4):444.
  10. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  11. Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, et al. Seventh report of the joint national committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure. Hypertension. 2003;42(6):1206-52.
  12. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  13. Wang Y, Wang QJ. The prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension among US adults according to the new joint national committee guidelines: new challenges of the old problem. Arch Intern Med. 2004; 164:2126–2134.
  14. Indexed at, Cross Ref 

  15. Sengul S, Akpolat T, Erdem Y, et al. Changes in hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rates in Turkey from 2003 to 2012. J Hypertens. 2016;34(6):1208.
  16. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  17. Bowe B, Xie Y, Li T, et al. The 2016 global and national burden of diabetes mellitus attributable to PM2· 5 air pollution. The Lancet Planetary Health. 2018;2(7):e301-12.
  18. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  19. Burnett R, Chen H, Szyszkowicz M, et al. Global estimates of mortality associated with long-term exposure to outdoor fine particulate matter. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2018;115(38):9592-7.
  20. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  21. Carey RM, Muntner P, Bosworth HB, et al. Prevention and control of hypertension: JACC health promotion series. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018;72(11):1278-93.
  22. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  23. Kazi AM, Qazi SA, Ahsan N, et al. Current challenges of digital health interventions in Pakistan: mixed methods analysis. J Med Internet Res. 2020;22(9):e21691.
  24. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  25. Maj M, van Os J, De Hert M, et al. The clinical characterization of the patient with primary psychosis aimed at personalization of management. World Psychiatry. 2021;20(1):4-33.
  26. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  27. Saeed AA, Al-Hamdan NA, Bahnassy AA, et al. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among Saudi adult population: a national survey. Int J Hypertens. 2011;2011.
  28. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  29. Naderi SH, Bestwick JP, Wald DS. Adherence to drugs that prevent cardiovascular disease: meta-analysis on 376,162 patients. Am J Med. 2012;125(9):882-7.
  30. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  31. Mohamad M, Moussally K, Lakis C, et al. Self-reported medication adherence among patients with diabetes or hypertension, Médecins Sans Frontières Shatila refugee camp, Beirut, Lebanon: A mixed-methods study. PloS one. 2021;16(5):e0251316.
  32. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  33. Abosamak NR, Shahin MH. Beta 2 receptor agonists/antagonists. InStatPearls 2022 May 8. StatPearls Publishing.
  34. Indexed at, Google Scholar

  35. Farzam K, Faizy RM, Saadabadi A. Stimulants. InStatPearls 2022 Jun 16. StatPearls Publishing.
  36. Indexed at, Google Scholar

  37. Oudhia, P. and Tripathi, R.S. (2002). Identification, cultivation and export of important medicinal plants. In Proc. National Seminar on Horticulture Development in Chhattisgarh: Vision and Vistas. Indira Gandhi Agricultural University, Raipur (India) 21-23 Jan. 2002:78-85
  38. Lobay D. Rauwolfia in the treatment of hypertension. Integrative Medicine: A Clinician's Journal. 2015 Jun;14(3):40.
  39. Indexed at, Google Scholar

  40. Kennedy, David O. (2014). "The Deliriants - The Nightshade (Solanaceae) Family". Plants and the Human Brain. New York: Oxford University. 2014;131–137.
  41. Fatur K. “Hexing herbs” in ethnobotanical perspective: A historical review of the uses of anticholinergic Solanaceae plants in Europe. Economic Botany. 2020;74(2):140-58.
  42. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  43. Pokrywka A, Obmiński Z, Malczewska-Lenczowska J, et al. Insights into supplements with Tribulus Terrestris used by athletes. J Hum Kinet. 2014;41:99
  44. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  45. Ashokkumar K, Murugan M, Dhanya MK, et al. Botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of cardamom [Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton]–A critical review. J Ethnopharmacol. 2020;246:112244.
  46. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  47. Kusters K, Belcher B.. Forest products, livelihoods and conservation: Case studies of non-timber forest product systems. 2004.
  48. Zheng X, Xiong J, Zhang Y, et al. Multistate Markov model application for blood pressure transition among the Chinese elderly population: a quantitative longitudinal study. BMJ open. 2022;12(7):e059805.
  49. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  50. Benjamin EJ, Muntner P, Alonso A, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics—2019 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2019;139(10):e56-28.
  51. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  52. Hermida RC, Ayala DE, Fernandez JR, et al. Hypertension: New perspective on its definition and clinical management by bedtime therapy substantially reduces cardiovascular disease risk. Eur J Clin Invest. 2018;48(5):e12909.
  53. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  54. Shiovitz TM, Bain EE, McCann DJ, et al. Mitigating the effects of nonadherence in clinical trials. J Clin Pharmacol. 2016;56(9):1151-64.
  55. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  56. Nieuwlaat R, Wilczynski N, Navarro T, et al. Interventions for enhancing medication adherence. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014(11).
  57. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  58. Mancia G, Fagard R, Narkiewicz K, Redon J, Zanchetti A, Böhm M, Christiaens T, Cifkova R, De Backer G, Dominiczak A, Galderisi M. 2013 ESH/ESC guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension: the Task Force for the Management of Arterial Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Arterial Hypertension. 2013; 17 (2): 69-168.
  59. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref 

  60. Kurtul S, Ak FK, Türk M. The prevalence of hypertension and influencing factors among the employees of a university hospital. Afr Health Sci. 2020;20(4):1725-33.
  61. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref 

  62. Dhingra D, Dabas A. Global Strategy on Digital Health. Indian Pediatr 2020; 57(4):356-358.
  63. Indexed at, Cross Ref

  64. Bourke CA, Stevens GR, Carrigan M. Locomotor effects in sheep of alkaloids identified in Australian Tribulus terrestris. Aust vet J. 1992;69(7):163-5.
  65. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  66. Eriksson N, Wu S, Do CB, et al. A genetic variant near olfactory receptor genes influences cilantro preference. Flavour. 2012 Dec;1(1):1-7.
  67. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  68. Burdock GA, Carabin IG. Safety assessment of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) essential oil as a food ingredient. Food and Chemical Toxicol. 2009;47(1):22-34.
  69. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  70. Popa CL, Lupitu A, Mot MD, et al. Chemical and biochemical characterization of essential oils and their corresponding hydrolats from six species of the Lamiaceae family. Plants. 2021;10(11):2489.
  71. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  72. Ramawat KG, Mérillon JM, editors. Natural products: phytochemistry, botany and metabolism of alkaloids, phenolics and terpenes. Berlin: Springer; 2013.
  73. Indexed at, Google Scholar

  74. Nongdam P, Tikendra L. The nutritional facts of bamboo shoots and their usage as important traditional foods of northeast India. Int sch Res Notices. 2014;2014.
  75. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  76. Yasodha R, Kamala S, Kumar SA, et al. Effect of glucose on in vitro rooting of mature plants of Bambusa nutans. Scientia Horticulturae. 2008 Mar 10;116(1):113-6.
  77. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  78. Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. Botanical journal of the Linnean Society. 2009;161(2):105-21.
  79. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  80. Stevens PF. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website, Version 14. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  81. Google Scholar

  82. Turner S, Bonnin C, Michaud J. Frontier livelihoods: Hmong in the Sino-Vietnamese borderlands. University of Washington Press; 2015 Jun 8.
  83. Google Scholar

Get the App