Perspective - Biomedical Research (2022) Advances in Health Science and Biotechnology Application: Edition: II
Recent advances in cancer therapy using precision medicine.
Department of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Diyala, Baquba, Diyala, Iraq
- Corresponding Author:
- Abdullah Hassan
Department of Chemistry
College of Science
University of Diyala
Accepted date: April 27, 2022
Translational research has transformed the way scientists invent different cancer medicines. One of the most significant advancements in modern cancer is the shift from an organ-centric approach to a Precision medicine strategy based on deep molecular analysis.
About the Study
Translational research has transformed the way scientists invent different cancer medicines. One of the most significant advancements in modern cancer is the shift from an organ-centric approach to a Precision medicine strategy based on deep molecular analysis. Precision medicine in oncology is a new approach to cancer treatment and prevention that considers inter and intra-tumor variability in genes, tumor (immune) environment, and each person's lifestyle and morbidities [1,2]. Precision medicine holds the promise of tailoring therapy to the tumor's oncogenic drivers and modulating the tumor's immunological milieu. Precision medicine also tries to optimize tumor response by taking into consideration therapy-induced toxicities for each individual patient.
Several technologies, including as next-generation DNA and RNA sequencing, have considerably increased the ability to detect predictive and prognostic molecular changes. The discovery of gene mutations, amplifications, and fusions has thereby changed the course of various diseases, both locally and meta statically. Precision medicine is based on a thorough understanding of the consequences of certain gene alterations. When considering precision medicine, it's useful to know what gene mutations are and how they can alter a person's cancer risk or treatment options. This shift in perspective, which focuses on the tumor's precise molecular abnormalities, has paved the way for individualized treatment. The identification of the cause of cancer cells with simultaneous molecular alterations is complicated by the intricacy of cancer cells with concomitant molecular alterations [3,4]. Furthermore, cancer diversity may be to blame for the lack of benefits with targeted therapeutics. However, the world has begun to investigate the progress of cancer treatment in order to adopt a precision approach.
Due to differences in drug toxicity and efficiency, genetic diversity plays a significant influence in any individual treatment for cancer. The study of how medicine interacts with genes that are passed down through generations is known as pharmacogenomics. This includes the impact of inherited genes on how drugs operate for each individual.
Because of genetic variances, a medicine may be safe for one individual but dangerous for another. It may cause serious negative effects in certain people. Even when given the same dose, another person may not respond. Drugs have various effects on different persons, according to pharmacogenetic studies, which are influenced by genes and environmental factors. The transition from pharmacogenetics to pharmacogenomics research provides light on how to alter the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cancer medications as a result of genetic variations in cancer treatment. Furthermore, pharmacogenomics researchers contribute to a better knowledge of cancer progression and treatment response, which is critical in individualized therapy. The determination of medication response in genetic diversity, the function of pharmacogenomics in drug discovery and development, and anticipation in customized therapy are three primary themes that are significant for the direction and development of pharmacogenomics. Many cancer forms have many genetic mutations, making molecular profile determination and characterization even more critical. Patient-derived tumor cells are evaluated using genome profiling to determine drug sensitivity and resistance and predict clinical response. This method establishes a solid foundation for drug screening and pharmacological profiling in cancer treatment .
Moreover, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics are important factors in determining the best treatment strategy, as well as the dosage and duration of anticancer drug administration for optimum efficacy and minimal toxicity. A sort of genetic testing that searches for specific genes is known as standard genetic testing. A test might screen for the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, which have been associated with an increased risk of breast and ovarian cancer. The results of a conventional genetic test could lead to preventative or risk-reduction measures. A type of genetic testing is known as pharmacogenomics. It looks for minor differences in genes. These differences could influence whether or not genes activate or deactivate specific treatments .
The landscape of cancer treatment has dramatically changed over the last four decades. A complex scenario where the molecular features of tumours seem to be the cornerstone of any therapy is now emerging. It’s critical to recognize that precision medicine isn't employed for every type of cancer. However, it is hoped that one day, treatments will be tailored to each person's individual gene mutations in cancer. This is an area where a lot of study is being done.
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