Perspective - Journal of Systems Biology & Proteome Research (2023) Volume 4, Issue 5
Proteogenomics: Bridging the gap between genes and proteins in systems biology
Leonardo Ariff *
Department of Integrative proteomics, Osaka University, Japan
- *Corresponding Author:
- Leonardo Ariff
Department of Integrative proteomics, Osaka University, Suita, Japan
Received: 05-Sept-2023, Manuscript No. AASBPR-23-112122; Editor assigned: 06- Sept -2023, PreQC No. AASBPR-23-112122 (PQ); Reviewed:19- Sept -2023, QC No. AASBPR-23-112122; Revised:21-Sept -2023, Manuscript No. AASBPR-23-112122 (R); Published:28- Sept -2023, DOI:10.35841/aasbpr-4.5.168
Citation: Ariff L. Proteogenomics: Bridging the gap between genes and proteins in systems biology. J Syst Bio Proteome Res. 2023;4(5):168
The intricate relationship between genes and proteins is at the core of biological systems. While genes hold the blueprint for protein synthesis, the dynamic interplay between genomic information and protein expression leads to the diversity of functions that sustain life. Proteogenomics, an innovative field that merges genomics and proteomics, seeks to bridge the gap between genes and proteins, offering a comprehensive understanding of cellular processes. Within the framework of systems biology, proteogenomics holds the key to unraveling the intricate mechanisms underlying cellular behavior, disease progression, and evolutionary adaptations .
Genomics deals with the study of an organism's complete set of genes, its genome, which acts as a repository of potential proteins. However, the presence of a gene doesn't necessarily imply the expression of its corresponding protein. Proteomics, on the other hand, is concerned with the identification and quantification of the actual proteins present within a cell or organism. Proteogenomics emerges as the bridge between these two realms, connecting the genomic blueprint with the realized protein expression .
Proteogenomics employs a multidisciplinary approach to dissect the intricate relationship between genes and proteins. By integrating genomic and proteomic data, researchers can refine gene annotations, identify novel coding sequences, and validate the actual expression of predicted genes. This integrative analysis not only enhances our understanding of the proteome but also unveils the complexity of post-translational modifications, alternative splicing, and non-coding RNA molecules that collectively contribute to the diversity of protein functions .
Genome annotation, the process of identifying coding regions within a genome, can sometimes miss short or non-canonical open reading frames. Proteogenomics plays a pivotal role in discovering these hidden proteins, which might play essential roles in cellular processes. By comparing mass spectrometry-based proteomics data with predicted gene sequences, researchers can identify peptides that correspond to previously unrecognized protein products, expanding our knowledge of the proteome's breadth .
Proteins are not static entities; they undergo a myriad of post-translational modifications that influence their function and interactions. Proteogenomics, in conjunction with systems biology, investigates these modifications by integrating proteomic data with genomic annotations. This approach sheds light on how genetic variations influence protein modifications and contribute to functional diversity, playing a crucial role in disease susceptibility, drug response, and cellular signaling. Proteogenomics has significant implications for disease research. In cancer, for instance, the integration of genomic and proteomic data can uncover novel driver mutations and potential therapeutic targets. By analyzing the correlation between genomic alterations and protein expression changes, researchers gain insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying disease initiation, progression, and treatment response .
Proteogenomics stands at the crossroads of genomics, proteomics, and systems biology, offering an integrative approach to unraveling the complexities of the relationship between genes and proteins. By bridging the gap between the genomic blueprint and the realized proteome, proteogenomics provides a holistic understanding of cellular behavior, disease mechanisms, and evolutionary adaptations. As technology and methodologies continue to evolve, proteogenomics will play an increasingly crucial role in deciphering the dynamic landscape of biological systems, enhancing our knowledge of health, disease, and the fundamental principles that govern life.
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