Journal of Gastroenterology and Digestive Diseases

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Perspective - Journal of Gastroenterology and Digestive Diseases (2022) Volume 7, Issue 3

Preparation methods and clinical administration of gastro-resistant encapsulation in capsules.

Peter M. Haddison*

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

*Corresponding Author:
Peter M. Haddison
Department of Medical Biochemistry,
Institute of Biomedicine,
University of Gothenburg,
Gothenburg, Sweden
E-mail: [email protected]

Received: 23-Feb-2022, Manuscript No. JGDD-22-111; Editor assigned: 25-Feb-2022, PreQC No. JGDD-22-111 (PQ); Reviewed: 07-Mar-2022, QC No. JGDD-22-111; Revised: 21-Mar-2022, Manuscript No. JGDD-22-111 (R); Published: 24-Mar-2022, DOI:10.35841/jgdd-7.3.115

Citation: Haddison PM. Preparation methods and clinical administration of gastro-resistant encapsulation in capsules. J Gastroenterology Dig Dis. 2022;7(3):115

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Untitled Document

Introduction

To make microcapsules, Type B encapsulation procedures use centrifugal force, extrusion, coextrusion, and spray technologies. Spray drying encapsulation was invented in the 1930s, hence they predate Type A encapsulation technologies. Self-contained encapsulation devices sold by equipment manufacturers are commonly used in this class of encapsulation operations. Equipment for Type A encapsulation operations, on the other hand, is often custom-designed and manufactured for a single capsule manufacturer. According to the author, Type B methods are generally unable to manufacture microcapsules at a cost-effective level, although many Type A processes can. Spray drying is one significant exception. Other exceptions are likely possible, but it is unclear how well many present Type B procedures perform when used to generate economically feasible quantities of microscopic microcapsules.

Pharmacodynamical effects

One of the biggest drawbacks of macromolecule treatment is that the majority of them can only be given intravenously. Exenatide, an effective anti-diabetic medication and incretin mimetic, is currently delivered subcutaneously (SC), which causes problems with compliance. Oral delivery of this medicine using nanoparticles (NPs) is thought to be a potential option. We encapsulated exenatide in a nano-in-micro delivery system to overcome exenatide's incapacity to penetrate enterocytes and boost its stability in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In comparison to injectable SC, this drug delivery system (DDS) improved the relative oral bioavailability of exenatide [1].

Assessment of toxicological aspects

SODB, a gastro-resistant encapsulated melon superoxide dismutase, was tested in the blood and liver tissue for its protective effects on haematological and biochemical parameters, as well as inflammatory and oxidative status. The study included a 28-day trial on rats treated with three dosages of SODB-M, SODB-D, or SODB-S (10, 40, and 160USOD/ day), depending on the nature of the coating (palm oil, shellac or gum Arabic respectively). There were no deaths, aberrant clinical symptoms, behavioural abnormalities, or macroscopic findings in any of the groups. In the SODB treated-groups, haematological measures (total red blood cell count, haemoglobin content, haematocrit, red cell indices, white blood cell count, and platelet count) were unaffected [2].

Flexibility of an emulsion solvent

The durability of an enteric microparticle manufacturing method based on an emulsion of ethanol in liquid paraffin stabilised with sorbitan sesquioleate that yields enteric microparticles of good morphology, size, and pH-sensitive drug release was investigated. The medication and polymer of choice were prednisolone and methacrylic acid and methyl methacrylate copolymer. Emulsion solvent evaporation procedures are notoriously sensitive to changes in methodology, so emulsion stirring speed, drug loading, polymer concentration, and surfactant (emulsifier) concentration were varied, as well as microparticle size, encapsulation efficiency, yield, and in vitro dissolution behaviour. Under all stirring speeds, drug loadings, and polymer concentrations, yield and encapsulation efficiency remained high. This indicates that the process is adaptable and can retain efficiency Surfactant concentration was a key factor; concentrations above a certain point resulted in poorly formed particles [2].

The size of the microparticles was altered by all processing factors, but this had no effect on their acid resistance. Smaller microparticles released drugs more quickly at higher pH levels. Finally, the microparticle preparation procedure proved resistant to a variety of processing alterations, while surfactant concentration was crucial. Manipulation of particle size can be used to change medication release profiles without altering the pH-responsive microparticles' gastro-resistant capabilities [3].

Development

The use of chitosan nanoparticles encapsulated in alginate microparticles as a carrier for shielding molecules of interest from degradation in the digestive tract has been proposed. The physical features of the carrier were investigated in relation to polymer concentration, sonication, stirring, pH, and processing conditions. CLSM was utilised to localise the polymers within the particles using FITC and RBITC. Under stomach and intestinal settings, the diffusion of amaranth red (AR) from nanoparticles was measured during dissolution. The size distribution of nanoparticles loaded with AR was homogenous with an encapsulation efficacy under ideal preparation conditions. We created alginate microparticles with a uniform dispersion of nanoparticles and polymers. The carrier released less than 5% of the loaded AR at stomach pH, while the release was quick and complete at intestinal pH [4].

References

  1. Soudry-Kochavi L, Naraykin N, Paola RD, et al. Pharmacodynamical effects of orally administered exenatide nanoparticles embedded in gastro-resistant microparticles. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2018 Dec;133:214-23.
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  3. Carillon J, Fouret G, Feillet-Coudray C, et al. Short-term assessment of toxicological aspects, oxidative and inflammatory response to dietary melon superoxide dismutase in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013;55:323-8.
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  5. Nilkumhang S, Basit AW. The robustness and flexibility of an emulsion solvent evaporation method to prepare pH-responsive microparticles. Int J Pharm. 2009;377(1-2):135-41.
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